English as a Second Language/sentences

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1. A solar cell is a device that changes solar power into electricity.
As a result of the rain, the competition was cancelled.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)   In the first sentence, does it mean the same if I replace “cell” with “battery”?
(2.)    In the second, what is the difference if I change “the rain” to “the rain out”?

2. An R&D department is responsible for researching, developing and designing new products.
 If a woman gets pregnant at an older age or smokes during her pregnancy, then she is more likely to have a deformed baby.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.) In the second, can I say also, “.., then her chances of having a deformed baby are higher”?

3. Doing excessive physical work has deformed his hands.
 Her spine is deformed due to the injury caused by an accident.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I say also, “Doing excessive physical work has caused his hands to deform” or “His hands are deformed due to excessive physical work”?

4. Watching CNN keeps me informed of the latest news around the world.
 John knows that I like basketball, so he always keeps me informed of all the upcoming NBA games and the latest news about the teams and players.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I leave out “watching”?
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “…and the lasts news about the league”?


5. Please inform me of a schedule change.
 I watch fashion shows to keep myself informed of the latest trends.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, does it mean the same if I change “of” to “about”?
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “I watched fashion shows because I like to be informed of the latest trends”?

6. Many political movements and protests these days aim to urge the government to make
radical social reforms.
 It’s been decades since the government initiated an education reform, but the results have been very disappointing.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)   In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “aim to”?
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “The government has pushed for the education reform for decades, but the results…”? Or is there another way to say “pushed for the reform”?

Answer
1. A solar cell is a device that changes solar power into electricity.
As a result of the rain, the competition was cancelled.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes
(1.)   In the first sentence, does it mean the same if I replace “cell” with “battery”? my understanding is that solar power cells and solar power batteries are different things
(2.)    In the second, what is the difference if I change “the rain” to “the rain out”?
To rain out means to interrupt or prevent (as a sports event) by rain - it won't "fit" here.

2. An R&D department is responsible for researching, developing and designing new products.
If a woman gets pregnant at an older age or smokes during her pregnancy, then she is more likely to have a deformed baby.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes
(1.) In the second, can I say also, “.., then her chances of having a deformed baby are higher”? yes

3. Doing excessive physical work has deformed his hands.
Her spine is deformed due to the injury caused by an accident.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I say also, “Doing excessive physical work has caused his hands to deform” or “His hands are deformed due to excessive physical work”? yes

4. Watching CNN keeps me informed of the latest news around the world.
John knows that I like basketball, so he always keeps me informed of all the upcoming NBA games and the latest news about the teams and players.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I leave out “watching”? yes
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “…and the lasts news about the league”? yes


5. Please inform me of a schedule change.
I watch fashion shows to keep myself informed of the latest trends.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes but "any/all schedule change(s)"
(1.)    In the first sentence, does it mean the same if I change “of” to “about”? yes
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “I watched fashion shows because I like to be informed of the latest trends”? yes but "I watch" (present tense)

6. Many political movements and protests these days aim to urge the government to make
radical social reforms.
It’s been decades since the government initiated an education reform, but the results have been very disappointing.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? the second one sounds ambiguous.
I'd rephrase it: Even though its been decades since the government initiated an education reform, the results of the most recent one have been very disappointing
(1.)   In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “aim to”? "are directed at urging the government..."
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “The government has pushed for the education reform for decades, but the results…”? you can say that but it doesn't have the same meaning
Or is there another way to say “pushed for the reform”? to push for = to recommend, to advocate, to support, to endorse  

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Amy Baker

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I can answer question about grammar, spelling, syntax, idioms, reading and/or writing that pertain to English as a Second Language. I am knowledgeable about both TOEFL and IELTS.

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