English as a Second Language/sentences

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Question
1.   
Different types of blood cells have their own functions.
The role of the critic is to see the connections between the themes.


(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “functions”? “Roles”, “characteristics”  or “purposes”?
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “role”? “Function”, “purpose” or “job”?


2.   He served in the capacity as mayor of the city for nearly 20 years.
He was hired for the mere purpose of reorganizing the current management structure.

(1.)    Can I rephrase the first sentence using “role” or “function”? For example, “He served (took on) the role of mayor of the city for nearly 20 years”?
(2.)    In the second, can I replace “purpose” with “role”, “function”or “capacity”?

3.   In 1984. Chilean astronomers found a disk-shaped cloud of debris surrounding a star in the constellation Pictor.
Astronomers recently discovered a collection of stars.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “constellation”?
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “a collection of”? “ A group of “, “a cluster of”, “an array of” or “a set of “?


4.   All those shiny new machines were signs of an emergent urban America.
Due to emerging technology, games can now be played via mobile phones and tablet devices for free or at low costs.


Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    Can I replace “emergent” with “emerging” in the first sentence and “emerging” with “emergent” in the second? What is the difference?
(2.)    What can be a substitute for “emergent”or “emerging”? “New”, “ the latest”or “innovative” or what else?

5, Drinking is a principal cause of traffic accidents.
Many high mountains lie in the central part of Taiwan.

(1.)   In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “principal”? “Main”, “major”, “leading” or “important”?
(2.)   In the second, what is another way to say “lie in the central”?


6.   The doctor will give you a comprehensive check-up to see if you are in good health.
My boss always gives me extensive work to do, so I can hardly meet a deadline.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a a substitute for “comprehensive”?
(2.)    In the second, can I change “hardly” to “rarely”?

Answer
1.   
Different types of blood cells have their own functions.
The role of the critic is to see the connections between the themes.

>>> The first should read: Different types of blood cells have different functions.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “functions”? “Roles”, “characteristics”  or “purposes”? Role or purpose
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “role”? “Function”, “purpose” or “job”? "job" is the only one I'd use


2.   He served in the capacity as mayor of the city for nearly 20 years.
He was hired for the mere purpose of reorganizing the current management structure.

>>> First should read: He served as mayor...

(1.)    Can I rephrase the first sentence using “role” or “function”? For example, “He served (took on) the role of mayor of the city for nearly 20 years”? He took on the role of mayor ... Is correct. Not sure how you want to use function here.
(2.)    In the second, can I replace “purpose” with “role”, “function”or “capacity”? Role is fine, the others don't work for me

3.   In 1984. Chilean astronomers found a disk-shaped cloud of debris surrounding a star in the constellation Pictor.
Astronomers recently discovered a collection of stars.

>>> First should read: In 1984 Chilean...in the Pictor constelation.
>>> In the second instead of "collection" I suggest "cluster"

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “constellation”? None
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “a collection of”? “ A group of “, “a cluster of”, “an array of” or “a set of “?  See above


4.   All those shiny new machines were signs of an emergent urban America.
Due to emerging technology, games can now be played via mobile phones and tablet devices for free or at low costs.


Are both sentences grammatically correct? Yes
(1.)    Can I replace “emergent” with “emerging” in the first sentence and “emerging” with “emergent” in the second? What is the difference? Yes you can. No differences
(2.)    What can be a substitute for “emergent”or “emerging”? “New”, “ the latest”or “innovative” or what else? Any of those.

5, Drinking is a principal cause of traffic accidents.
Many high mountains lie in the central part of Taiwan.

>>> The first should read "Drinking and driving is the principal..."

(1.)   In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “principal”? “Main”, “major”, “leading” or “important”? Yes to all but "most important" rather than "important"
(2.)   In the second, what is another way to say “lie in the central”? Are found in the central


6.   The doctor will give you a comprehensive check-up to see if you are in good health.
My boss always gives me extensive work to do, so I can hardly meet a deadline.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a a substitute for “comprehensive”? Thorough
(2.)    In the second, can I change “hardly” to “rarely”? Yes  

English as a Second Language

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Amy Baker

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I can answer question about grammar, spelling, syntax, idioms, reading and/or writing that pertain to English as a Second Language. I am knowledgeable about both TOEFL and IELTS.

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I'm a certified ESL teacher with 12 years of experience teaching K-12 and adults.

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