English as a Second Language/sentences

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Question
1. Lawmakers often debate what level of mental illness should preclude the death penalty.

There have been plenty of debates whether the MRT killer suffered mental health problems before the attack. If he is proven to have been insane, he could be precluded from the death penalty.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)   In the first sentence, can I replace “preclude” with “prevent”, “forestall”, “hinder”, “obstruct”, “restrain”?
(2.)    Or can I replace it with “exempt/ excuse someone from” or “be exempt/ excuse from”?


2. Plans to organize a curriculum have been hampered by difficulties.
Normal circulation is hindered when a layer of warm air sits on top of cooler air.

(1.)   In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “hampered” ? “Hindered”, “halted”,  “stopped’,“precluded”, “prevented”, “forestall”, “obstructed” or “restrained”?
(2.)   In the second, what is a substitute for “hindered”?  “Hampered”, “halted”,  ,“precluded”, “prevented”, “forestall”, “obstructed” or “restrained”?


3.The United States prohibited the sale and consumption of alcohol in the early 1920s.
According to the law, the transportation and dumping of chemical substances was forbidden.


(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “prohibited”?  “Stopped”, “forbade’, “banned”or “barred”?
(2.)    What is a substitute for “forbidden”? ““Prohibited”?  “Prohibited
“,“Stopped”, “forbade’, “banned”or “barred”


4, Corsets were normally so tightly laced that a woman’s breathing was inhibited and her ribs are prone to damage.
The chains were still unable to restrain the elephant from breaking free.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “inhibited”? “Restrained”, “obstructed”, “hindered”, “precluded”?
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “restrained”? “Prevented”, “forestalled”, “hindered”, “obstructed”,, “forbidden”?

5, The currents propel the salmon forward as they swim back up to their breeding grounds.
 The bad smell from the sewage leakage in the building drove out all the residents.

(1.)    What is a substitute for “propel” in the first sentence?  “Move” , “push”, “drive”, “force out” or “impel”?
(2.)     What is a substitute for “drove out” in the second?  “Repelled”,”propelled”,  “drove away”, “forced out” or “impelled”?

6. Impelled by a historic and traditional attachment, the Jewish people strove to re-establish themselves in their ancient homeland.
 The mayor thought he would rather than resign quietly than be forced out of office amid scandal.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “impelled’?  “Driven”, “compelled”, “propelled”, “motivated” or “encouraged”?
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “be forced out”, “be kicked out”. “be asked / compelled to leave the company””?

Answer
1. Lawmakers often debate what level of mental illness should preclude the death penalty.

There have been plenty of debates whether the MRT killer suffered mental health problems before the attack. If he is proven to have been insane, he could be precluded from the death penalty.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct? Yes
(1.)   In the first sentence, can I replace “preclude” with “prevent”, “forestall”, “hinder”, “obstruct”, “restrain”? I'd go with prevent, forestall or hinder.
(2.)    Or can I replace it with “exempt/ excuse someone from” or “be exempt/ excuse from”? Exempt could also work

2. Plans to organize a curriculum have been hampered by difficulties.
Normal circulation is hindered when a layer of warm air sits on top of cooler air.

(1.)   In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “hampered” ? “Hindered”, “halted”,  “stopped’,“precluded”, “prevented”, “forestall”, “obstructed” or “restrained”? hindered, forestalled, or precluded.
(2.)   In the second, what is a substitute for “hindered”?  “Hampered”, “halted”,  ,“precluded”, “prevented”, “forestall”, “obstructed” or “restrained”? I assume you mean interrupted or obstructed here.

3.The United States prohibited the sale and consumption of alcohol in the early 1920s.
According to the law, the transportation and dumping of chemical substances was forbidden.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “prohibited”?  “Stopped”, “forbade’, “banned”or “barred”? banned
(2.)    What is a substitute for “forbidden”? ““Prohibited”?  "Prohibited
“,“Stopped”, “forbade’, “banned”or “barred”
depending on the context, any of the above.

4, Corsets were normally so tightly laced that a woman’s breathing was inhibited and her ribs are prone to damage.
The chains were still unable to restrain the elephant from breaking free.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “inhibited”? “Restrained”, “obstructed”, “hindered”, “precluded”? obstructed (I wouldn't use inhibited in this context). Also the first sentence needs corrected "ribs WERE prone to damage"
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “restrained”? “Prevented”, “forestalled”, “hindered”, “obstructed”,, “forbidden”? prevent.

5, The currents propel the salmon forward as they swim back up to their breeding grounds.
The bad smell from the sewage leakage in the building drove out all the residents.

(1.)    What is a substitute for “propel” in the first sentence?  “Move” , “push”, “drive”, “force out” or “impel”? move, push, drive
(2.)     What is a substitute for “drove out” in the second?  “Repelled”,”propelled”,  “drove away”, “forced out” or “impelled”? drove away, forced out.

6. Impelled by a historic and traditional attachment, the Jewish people strove to re-establish themselves in their ancient homeland.
The mayor thought he would rather than resign quietly than be forced out of office amid scandal.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “impelled’?  “Driven”, “compelled”, “propelled”, “motivated” or “encouraged”? any one except for maybe propelled
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “be forced out”, “be kicked out”. “be asked / compelled to leave the company””? any of these. (the sentence doesn't exactly make sense, by the way)  

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Amy Baker

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