English as a Second Language/sentences

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Question
1.The makeup of the course proved to be difficult, as many runners struggled within the first kilometer.
Even subtle noises can be very distracting if you are trying to concentrate on studying.

(1.)   What is a substitute for “makeup”in the first sentence ?
“Composition”, “formation”, “content”, “architecture”, “foundation” or “framework”or “build”?

(2.)   In the second, what is a substitute for “concentrate on studying”?
“Focus on studying”, “apply yourself” , “hit the book”or what else?

2. He opted to stay in residence over thanksgiving so he could focus on studying for his test.
His primary responsibilities centered on planning, marketing, and management.

(1.)   In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “focus on studying”?
“Focus on studying”, “apply himself” , “hit the book”?

(2.)    What is a substitute for “centered on”in the second? “Focused on”, “concentrated on”, “surrounded”, “featured”, “revolved about”or what else?
(3.)    What is another way to say “stay in residence”? “stay home”?


3. The elements of Seurat's paintings tempt us to contemplate oppositions, like dressed and undressed, and nature and culture.
Monks often meditate for many hours a day in solitude.

(1.)In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “contemplate”? “Consider”, “ponder on”, “mediate on”, reflect on”, “think about”, , “reckon on’or “plan on”?

(2.)    What is a substitute for “meditate”?
“Consider”, “ponder”, “think”, reflect on themselves”, , “daydream”or“reckon “?

(3.)    What is a substitute for “in solitude”? “Alone”?

4. Copernicus developed his heliocentric model of the solar system after reflecting on the fallacies in the astronomical knowledge of his contemporaries.
Congress considered the pros and cons of legalizing the drug, but decided against it in the end.

(1.)    What is a substitute for “reflecting on”?
“Considering”, “pondering on”, “thinking about”, “meditating on”, or“ reckoning on”?

(2.)   What is a substitute for “considered”?

“Contemplated”,“ considered”, “pondered on”, “mediated on”, “reflected on”, “thought about”, “weighed”, “estimated” , “calculated”, “examined”, “evaluated” or “reckoned on”?

5.   Minimalism as an art form encourages people to ponder what the nature of art really is.
The philosopher was always thinking deeply about something.

(1.)    What is a substitute for “ponder” in the first sentence?
“Contemplate”,“ consider”,  “mediated on”, “reflect on”, “think about””examine”, “conjure up”, or “reckoned on”?

(2.)   In the second, what is a substitute for “thinking deeply about something”?
(on something deeply”, “reflecting on something deeply”, ”examining something deeply”or “reckoning something deeply”?

6. Magazines disseminate new fashion trends to the public.
Nitrogen first diffuses from the lungs to the blood, and then from the blood to tissue.

(1.)   What is a substitute for “disseminate” in the first sentence?
“Circulate”, “disperse”, “publicize”, “advertise”, “tell about”, “diffuse”, “disperse”, “scatter”, “disclose’, “spread” or “reveal”?

(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “diffuses”?
“Circulates”, “moves”, “disperses”, spreads”, “disseminates”, “distributes”, “permeate” or “pass around”?

Answer
1.The makeup of the course proved to be difficult, as many runners struggled within the first kilometer.
Even subtle noises can be very distracting if you are trying to concentrate on studying.

(1.)   What is a substitute for “makeup”in the first sentence ? Structure or design, better yet, layout

(2.) In the second, what is a substitute for “concentrate on studying”?
“Focus on studying”, “apply yourself” , “hit the books"

2. He opted to stay in residence over thanksgiving so he could focus on studying for his test.
His primary responsibilities centered on planning, marketing, and management.

(1.)   In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “focus on studying”?
“Focus on studying”, “apply himself” , “hit the books"

(2.)    What is a substitute for “centered on”in the second? “Focused on”, “concentrated on”, “revolved around”
(3.)    What is another way to say “stay in residence”? “stay home”


3. The elements of Seurat's paintings tempt us to contemplate oppositions, like dressed and undressed, and nature and culture.
Monks often meditate for many hours a day in solitude.

(1.)In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “contemplate”? “Consider”, “ponder on”,"reflect on”, “think about”

(2.)    What is a substitute for "meditate" - no synonym here

(3.)    What is a substitute for “in solitude”? “Alone”

4. Copernicus developed his heliocentric model of the solar system after reflecting on the fallacies in the astronomical knowledge of his contemporaries.
Congress considered the pros and cons of legalizing the drug, but decided against it in the end.

(1.)    What is a substitute for “reflecting on”?
“Considering”, “pondering on”, “thinking about”

(2.)   What is a substitute for “considered”?

“Contemplated”,“ pondered on”, “reflected on”, “thought about”, “weighed”, “examined”, “evaluated”

5.   Minimalism as an art form encourages people to ponder what the nature of art really is.
The philosopher was always thinking deeply about something.

(1.)    What is a substitute for “ponder” in the first sentence?
“Contemplate”,“ consider”, “reflect on”, “think about”

(2.)   In the second, what is a substitute for “thinking deeply about something”?
“reflecting on something deeply” - (it may work as a substitute, but I'd stick to the original)

6. Magazines disseminate new fashion trends to the public.
Nitrogen first diffuses from the lungs to the blood, and then from the blood to tissue.

(1.)   What is a substitute for “disseminate” in the first sentence? “publicize”, “advertise”, “tell about”

(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “diffuses”?
“Circulates”, “moves”, “disperses”, spreads”

I hope this helps.

Amy  

English as a Second Language

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Amy Baker

Expertise

I can answer question about grammar, spelling, syntax, idioms, reading and/or writing that pertain to English as a Second Language. I am knowledgeable about both TOEFL and IELTS.

Experience

I'm a certified ESL teacher with 12 years of experience teaching K-12 and adults.

Education/Credentials
BSc MEd TESL post grad program for k-12 TESL post grad program for adult ed

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