English as a Second Language/sentences

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Question
1.   Evidence exists of asteroids colliding with the earth in the past.
  After the car skidded on the ice, it bumped against the railing.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “colliding with”? “Bumping into”,  “crashing into”,“hitting”, “clashing” or “striking”?
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “bumped against”?  “Collided with”, “crashed into”,“clashed with”, “hit” or “struck”?
(3.)    Can I rephrase the first sentence like this? “Evidence that asteroids colliding with the earth in the past exists”?

2.The police clashed with the rioters, resulting in several injuries.
When the comet hits our atmosphere, it will be visible as a large fireball streaking across the sky.
(1.)    What is a substitute for “clashed with” in the first sentence?  “Bumped against”, “collided with”, “crashed into”, “hit” or “struck”?
(2.   ) What is a substitute for “hits”in the second?  “bumps against”?  “Collides with”, “crashes into”,“clashes with”,  or “strikes”?


3. The construction of the business complex was delayed due to the snowstorm.
 The engine was complicated to build because it required many specialized parts.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “the business complex”? “The business compound” or “the group of business buildings”?
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “complicated”? “Intricate”, “elaborate”, “sophisticated”, “complex”, “arduous”, “tricky” or “troublesome”?

4 . The antlers of deer grow larger and more intricate as they age.
The famous pictures of the UFO turned out to be an elaborate hoax orchestrated by a group of alien enthusiasts.

(1.   ) In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “intricate”? “Complicated”, “elaborate”, “sophisticated”, “complex”, “arduous”, “tricky”?
(2.   )  What is a substitute for “elaborate”in the second?  “Intricate”,“complicated”, “sophisticated”, “complex”, “arduous”, “difficult”,“tricky”?

5.   The process of learning archery for Mongol warriors was exceedingly long and arduous.
Painting forgeries have become so sophisticated that even experts need machines to discern a fake from an authentic work.

(1.)   What is substitute for “arduous”in the first sentence? “Difficult”, “complicated”, “tiring”, “troublesome”, “tough”, “strenuous”, “tricky” ?
(2.)    What is a substitute for “sophisticated”in the second? “Intricate”,  “complicated”, “elaborate”, “difficult”, “complex”, “arduous”, “tricky”, “troublesome”, “trough”, “strenuous”?

6. Casinos in the area were creating a troublesome effect for local residents.
The relationship between the State and the Church has been tricky long before today.
(1.)    What is a substitute for “troublesome” in the first sentence?  “Cumbersome”, “worrisome”, “bothersome”, “alarming”, “annoying”, “damaging”, “irritating”, “complicated”?
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “tricky”? “Complex”, “complicated”, “delicate”, “intricate”, “delicate”, “troublesome”or “cumbersome”, “difficult”?

Answer
1.   Evidence exists of asteroids colliding with the earth in the past.
  After the car skidded on the ice, it bumped against the railing.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “colliding with”?   “crashing into”, “striking”
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “bumped against”?  “Collided with”, “crashed into”, “hit” or “struck”
(3.)    Can I rephrase the first sentence like this? “Evidence that asteroids colliding with the earth in the past exists”? Yes but it sounds extremely awkward.
My version: There is evidence of asteroids colliding with the Earth in the past.

2.The police clashed with the rioters, resulting in several injuries.
When the comet hits our atmosphere, it will be visible as a large fireball streaking across the sky.
(1.)    What is a substitute for “clashed with” in the first sentence?  “Bumped against”, “collided with”, “crashed into”, “hit” or “struck”? None. Here clash = engage in physical conflict
(2.   ) What is a substitute for “hits”in the second?   “Collides with”,better yet "enters"

3. The construction of the business complex was delayed due to the snowstorm.
 The engine was complicated to build because it required many specialized parts.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “the business complex”? “The business compound” or “the group of business buildings”? Any of these
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “complicated”? “Intricate”, “elaborate”, “sophisticated”, “complex”, “arduous”, “tricky” or “troublesome”? Any of the above

4 . The antlers of deer grow larger and more intricate as they age.
The famous pictures of the UFO turned out to be an elaborate hoax orchestrated by a group of alien enthusiasts.

(1.   ) In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “intricate”? “elaborate”, “sophisticated”, “complex”
(2.   )  What is a substitute for “elaborate”in the second?  “Intricate”,“complicated”, “sophisticated”, “complex”

5.   The process of learning archery for Mongol warriors was exceedingly long and arduous.
Painting forgeries have become so sophisticated that even experts need machines to discern a fake from an authentic work.

(1.)   What is substitute for “arduous”in the first sentence? “Difficult”, “complicated”, “tiring”, “troublesome”, “tough”, “strenuous”
(2.)    What is a substitute for “sophisticated”in the second? “Intricate”, “elaborate”, “complex”, “arduous"

6. Casinos in the area were creating a troublesome effect for local residents.
The relationship between the State and the Church has been tricky long before today.

(1.)    What is a substitute for “troublesome” in the first sentence?  “worrisome”, “bothersome”
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “tricky”? “Complex”, “complicated”, “troublesome” “difficult”

English as a Second Language

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Amy Baker

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I can answer question about grammar, spelling, syntax, idioms, reading and/or writing that pertain to English as a Second Language. I am knowledgeable about both TOEFL and IELTS.

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I'm a certified ESL teacher with 12 years of experience teaching K-12 and adults.

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