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Hi Amy,
Thanks for being here to help. I have faced this sentence in a book and can not analyze and separate its different parts. I cant't translate it because I can't distinguish its part. can you help? The sentence is:

"As a result, it ignores personal change movements, such as cults, communes, and religious sects, which the theory considers to rely on social interactions and charismatic leadership for defining goals rather than institutional structures."

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#1. between A and B which one is true?

A. "social interactions and charismatic leadership for defining goals" is one part and "rather than institutional structures" is the other?
If so, then I guess I can assume an omitted "to rely on" before "institutional structures"

B. "social interactions and charismatic leadership" is one part, and "for defining goals rather than institutional structures" is the other. If so I guess there can be a "for defining" before "institutional structures".

#2. "defining" here means to define (gerund), or is it an adjective?

Many thanks for your help.

Answer
I can see why this may be a challenging sentence, Azad.

Here's how I'd rewrite this:

As a result, it ignores personal change movements, such as cults, communes, and religious sects.
The theory considers these (personal change movements) to rely on social interactions and charismatic leadership for (the purpose of) defining goals rather than (for the purpose of defining) institutional structures.

If my interpretation is correct, "defining" is a gerund here.

Let me know if you need more help with this. The full text of the paragraph may help if you need to send me a follow up question.

Regards,

Amy

English as a Second Language

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Amy Baker

Expertise

I can answer question about grammar, spelling, syntax, idioms, reading and/or writing that pertain to English as a Second Language. I am knowledgeable about both TOEFL and IELTS.

Experience

I'm a certified ESL teacher with 12 years of experience teaching K-12 and adults.

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BSc MEd TESL post grad program for k-12 TESL post grad program for adult ed

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