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Evolution/Neanderthal chromosome count

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middleman wrote at 2008-09-23 03:40:56
The answer is incorrect. Neanderthals were not homo sapiens.

According to DNA analysis, Neanderthals were a cousin species, not a direct ancestor to humans.

See Green, et al in Nature, 2006 for the details of this.  


The Radical Ryushin wrote at 2009-02-12 14:54:47
DNA Analysis? How could there be any DNA analysis if there is no preserved tissue of Neanderthals. Sorry, dude but you're wrong. You don't have any evidence to support your claims. You are no different than that Korean dude who said he could clone animals, but had nothing to prove for it.


theAnswerWithinU wrote at 2009-11-07 01:55:05
Well, there is also the conflicting data that show that homo sapiens may be as old as 200,000 years (+ / - 50,000 years). Yet Neanderthals may be as young as 24,000 years. The two data sets don't match. [source:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/02/050223122209.htm]



The assumption that we are are an evolutionary offspring of the Neanderthals is completely unsubstantiated, and the logic being used for this theory would similarly allow me to make an argument that humans are an offshoot of homo floresiensis (the hobbit).  


Smiley wrote at 2011-02-27 16:27:19
The answer is we don't know at this point.  There is no direct connection between modern humans and Neanderthal which tells us that it is very possible that they have the 24 Haploid 48 Diploid as is sugested by the intervention theories of the Enuma Elish and the 7 tablets of creation story of the Sumerians in "The House of fashioning" where the telemetric fusion of the Chromosome 2 created the modern Human with 23/46 chromosme found to have occured around 200,000 to 150,000 y.a.



Here is something you might find interesting:

Here is the oldest story about our creation known to human history. "Human Anunnaki Anthropology - Lloyd Pye"

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tNjRJZgpaEY



Here is what we do know:



According to Noonan et al. 2006 the Human and Neanderthal genomes are at least 99.5% identical. Using DNA from a 38,000-year-old male specimen from Croatia they tried to recover as much of the Neanderthal DNA sequence as possible which was then replicated through matched reverse protein synthesis. However, currently there is no complete sequence of Neanderthal DNA and none of the papers I have read state a chromosome number. However, Humans and Neanderthal shared a common ancestor as recently as 706,000 year ago so it is likely that we also share a diploid chromosome number of 46 and haploid of 23. Current papers seem to accept this by mapping Neanderthal DNA to the Human genome and working out the level of similarity.



My understanding is that it is difficult to determine chromosome number for certain without being able to observe living cells under going cell division, clearly difficult in this case.

Source(s):

In a distilled form: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal

Scientific Literature:

Noonan, J.P., Coop, G., Kudaravalli, S., Smith, D., Krause, J., Alessi, J., Chen, F.,, Platt., Paabo, S., Pritchard, J.K., Rubin, E.M. Sequencing and Analysis of Neanderthal Genomic DNA (2006) Science 314 p1113-1118



Neanderthals are the extinct hominid group most closely related to contemporary humans, so their genome offers a unique opportunity to identify genetic changes specific to anatomically fully modern humans. We have identified a 38,000-year-old Neanderthal fossil that is exceptionally free of contamination from modern human DNA. Direct high-throughput sequencing of a DNA extract from this fossil has thus far yielded over one million base pairs of hominoid nuclear DNA sequences. Comparison with the human and chimpanzee genomes reveals that modern human and Neanderthal DNA sequences diverged on average about 500,000 years ago. Existing technology and fossil resources are now sufficient to initiate a Neanderthal genome-sequencing effort.



Neanderthals were first recognized as a distinct group of hominids from fossil remains discovered 150 years ago at Feldhofer in Neander Valley, outside Düsseldorf, Germany. Subsequent Neanderthal finds in Europe and western Asia showed that fossils with Neanderthal traits appear in the fossil record of Europe and western Asia about 400,000 years ago and vanish about 30,000 years ago. Over this period they evolved morphological traits that made them progressively more distinct from the ancestors of modern humans that were evolving in Africa1, 2. For example, the cranium of late Neanderthals have protruding mid-faces, brain cases that bulge outward at the sides, and features of the base of the skull, jaw and inner ears that set them apart from modern humans.  


Joe Mama wrote at 2011-08-13 18:15:29
Actually, animals with different chromosome counts can interbreed.  A prime example of this is interbreeding wild horses with domesticated horses.  Domesticated horses have one less chromosome than wild horses, and the chances of carrying pregnancy to term are diminished considerably.  However, when an offspring is produced it will always carry the chromosome count of the domesticated variety.  So, even in light of new data proving interbreeding between our ancestors, the court is still out on the chromosome count of Neanderthal Man.  


Barcs wrote at 2012-03-18 15:12:17
Just an FYI, this has changed.  We now know that Neanderthal also had 46 chromosomes and that homo sapiens bred with them at one point, leading to a 1-4% of our genome that comes from ancient Neanderthal, except for certain people in areas of Africa,


Che Joubert wrote at 2014-02-10 17:41:44
In response to 'Barcs' who says we now know Neanderthal had 46 chromosomes  - that cannot be deduced from the unsupported speculation that 1-4% of our genome 'comes from Neanderthals.' We have no direct evidence that the 1-4% percent comes from Neanderthals in the first place, only that the genome of some humans shares sequences with Neanderthals. These genes appear to be related to the effects of living in an extremely cold climate, and might just as well have been derived from as yet undiscovered strains of Homo Sapiens. Regardless, one cannot reason backwards to chromosome count even from interbreeding, let alone alleged interbreeding that is totally speculative.


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