Food Safety Issues/biology


Generally,mankind( I believe across all cultures) prefers to eat foods that are served hot or sometimes chilled.I have the impression that it should be more natural,beneficial and tastier to eat food as it is  i.e. at room temperature, as what other animals do. Our body mechanism also would work optimally, I presume at either room or body temperatures. What is your comment?

Microorganisms known to cause food poisoning thrive at temperatures from 41F to 135F (referred to as the danger zone). These pathogens reproduce most efficiently at temperatures from 70F to 110F. This includes "room temperature". Ready to eat food that is "potentially hazardous" (known to cause food poisoning symptoms) …containing meat, dairy, seafood, previously cooked vegetables, etc is at risk for pathogen contamination. So the answer to your question is, It depends on the food. If the food is "potentially hazardous" and it is held in the "danger zone" for more than 4 hours you are at risk for food poisoning. Cooking food sterilizes it, killing off all microorganisms. If a pathogen is introduced after cooking the pathogen will "take off like a rocket" since there are no "competing organisms" to slow down the reproduction. "Other animals" don't cook their food. Uncooked food is always colonized by microorganisms. Pathogens do not compete well with other naturally occurring microorganisms. That's why animals don't get food poisoning. I think if you poled food safety experts all of them would agree with my opinion. In fact it really isn't my opinion. It's science.  

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Carl LaFrate


I can answer food safety questions relative to food processing, retail food and food salvage after a catastrophic event such as a hurricane, flood, ammonia leak or fire. Questions related to HACCP, Regulatory, GFSI, SQF, BRC, liability issues, contamination events, pest infestation, pest control methodology,food safety defense, pathogen prevention such as L. Monocytogenes control in food processing and retail, any subject related to food safety including at home issues.


30 years experience as a food safety consultant working for the top food processors, food retailers and insurance companies that write liability policies related to food processing, storage and distribution. My firm employees 6 full time food safety auditors. I work for top law firms throughout the USA and am a staff consultant for Douglas Peterson and Associates, one of the top forensic engineering firms in the world. I also work with Risk Solutions International, a global leader in risk management.

New York State Association for Food Protection, past president, executive board Central Atlantic States Association of Food and Drug Officials

Progressive Grocer Magazine Smart Money Magazine Private Label Buyer Magazine Supermarket News Natural Foods Merchandiser Magazine Food Service Director Magazine NYS Association for Food Protection Annual Report NYS Association for Food Protection Newsletter

Syracuse University, Microbiology/Biology NYS College of Environmental Sciences, Plant and Environmental Biology Cornell University, Food and Dairy Processing

Awards and Honors
Wm. Hickey Award (2006), NYS Association for Food Protection, for contributions in the field of food safety and sanitation New York State Integrated Pest Management Award (2007), NYS Assoc. for Food Protection, for contributions in the filed of integrated pest management.

Past/Present Clients
Pillsbury, Agri-Mark, Associated Grocers, Beatrice Foods, Cargill, Southern Cold Storage, Quaker, Ben & Jerry’s, Delverde Pasta (Italy), New York Bakery, Cabot Cheese, Hazelwood Farms, General Mills, Price Chopper Supermarkets, P&C Supermarkets, Great American Supermarkets, Tops Markets, Big M Supermarkets, Big Bear Supermarkets, Frito-Lay Distribution Centers, IBP, Excell, Eckerd Drugs, Rite Aid Drug Stores, Fay’s Drugs, Carl’s Drugs, AWI Wholesale Food Distribution, McLane Food Distributors, Golub Food Distribution, many supermarket chains (many include large scale specialty food service operations), Burger King, Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, McDonald’s, Darden Foods (Red Lobster, Olive Garden), LSG Skychefs (Germany, US), Glen Mills Schools, Cornell University, Crider Poultry, Caesar’s Palace, The Oneida Indian Nation, Taylor Meat Packing, UCB Packaging Films

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