Food Service Equipment & Supplies/Type 1 Hood for Food Truck
Dear BML Consulting,
I bought a food truck that has a residential stove and hood. I want to replace the stove with a couple of fryers and griddles. I understand that a Type 1 hood is required, but I can't find anything official that defines a Type 1 hood. Is it a hood designed to capture and remove grease vapor? Additionally, I have limited space and would like to use a couple of KitchenAid KXU4230YSS Architect II Series Under-Cabinet hoods that are designed to remove grease. Would this Kitchenaid Hood suffice for Type I? I tried emailing a Kitchenaid rep but her response suggested that she had no idea what a Type I hood is.
You are correct: a type 1 hood is for the removal of particulate and grease laden vapors. For your truck you will need to install a COMMERCIAL quality exhaust canopy (KitchenAid is only residential and won't qualify# from manufacturers like CaptiveAir, Advent, Halton, Giles, Gaylord or Ventmaster.
These are all engineered hoods designed to remove smoke and vapor at lower CFM's #cubic feet per minute#. You want to extract smoke/vapor at as low a rate of air movement as possible. The reasons are:
1. most kitchens are air conditioned and you want to remove as little conditioned air as possible to keep energy costs down
2. when you remove air you have to replace it with new air #referred to as "make-up air") otherwise you will create a vacuum
3. you want to keep the noise level of the blower fans as low as possible
When you remove air you have to replace it from outside. This requires a separate fan and ductwork. All of this has to be calculated and engineered for the type of equipment being used and the amount of btu's (a measurement of heat production) generated. As such you will most likely want to hire a professional kitchen designer to draw your plans, make the calculations and walk said plans through the health department in your area.
The laws for mobile food service are much stricter than for brick and mortar establishments. Reason being that there is a greater likelihood of food borne illness to occur due to the environment, smaller space, limited refrigeration-water-waste-sanitation protocols, etc.
My recommendation would be to go on the MAFSI website (Manufacturers Agents for the Food Service Industry) where you can find a list of representatives for your area. I suggest you look up whomever represents CaptiveAir (the MAFSI guide will tell you what each agent represents in your area) since they are one of the more affordable ventilation manufacturers.
That same agent may also represent cooking equipment in which case he can make recommendations based on your needs. He/she can also refer you to a reputable kitchen designer in your area. Sometimes if you work with an agent who reps both hoods and equipment they can "bundle" the manufacturers together and give you a package deal at a better discount. However, the agent doesn't sell the equipment to you (they only represent the manufacturers interests): instead he/she can refer you to a food service distributor (some distributors have kitchen design consultants on staff) who can sell/design/install/walk plans through the health department.
I know it sound a little complex but if you find a good manufacturers' agent they can be really helpful. Most exhaust hood manufacturers will provide CAD drawings of their hoods specific to your needs (based on the type/size cooking equipment and the amount of btu's they produce) if you give them specification sheets of the equipment you plan to use. However, these type of drawings are not extensive enough to satisfy health department requirements so that's where a kitchen designer comes in. The designer will:
1. Provide drawings of your space and the location of ALL equipment on the truck
2. Cross sections of the ventilation system (including make-up air) and the calculations to remove/replace conditioned air
3. A detailed protocol of how the equipment will be used, maintained and cleaned
There are many more details the health department will demand and the list gets quite mind boggling. Suffice to say that you are in for an "experience" both bureaucratically and financially when dealing with the health department. You might want to go to your local health department and ask for the booklet of requirements for mobile food service. This will give you a better idea of what you're up against before you start reaching out to reps, manufacturers, designers and distributors.
I don't want to scare you but you are definitely talking about tens of thousands of dollars to convert your truck for commercial foodservice so unless you are going to attempt to do this without permits or a business license (not advisable) I would proceed cautiously.
This is the best advice I can offer you in the confines of this limited venue.
Best of luck!