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General History/Need help with some 20th century history.

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Question
1. Lebanon was destabilized by (A)tension between the French government and nationalist rebels(B)the establishment of a Jewish state on Lebanese land(C)the influx of Palestinian Arabs feeling Israeli territory.
2. During the Cold War, the United States made alliances with Iran and Afghanistan. Why were these two countries of strategic importance to the United States?
3. In recent decades Muslim fundamentalist or "traditionalist" movements, some of them violent, have been growing in strength in the Middle East and North Africa. Based on your knowledge, what has caused this growth?

Answer
For your first question, I would say the primary destabilization came from c: Palestinians who gathered in Lebanon following defeats after the 7 Days War and the Yom Kippur War with Israel.

I don't the the US ever had any treaties with Afghanistan during the Cold War.  However, the two countries had reasonably good relations.  The US interest in Afghanistan was primarily due to the fact that is was next to the Soviet Union.  Iran had more value during the Cold War since it was a major source of oil, was a significant military power in the middle east, and had warm water ports that the Soviet Union would have wanted.  The US engaged in a CIA coup to install the Shah of Iran and make sure it remained friendly to the US.

Fundamentalist movements in the mid-east come from a variety of issues.  One of the main ones is the end of the Cold War.  During the Cold War, both the US and Soviet Union supported dictators who suppressed local political movements.  With the end of the Cold War, support for such dictators has drastically fallen, making them unable to crush local anti-government movements.  Religion has long been a focal point for dissident movements so it is not surprising that religious movements in the middle east have been a focus for many dissident or reform movements.  These movements are nothing new.  Many of the movements can trace their roots back more than 100 years to resistance to westernizing pressures from European Colonizers or nationalist leaders.  They have just been suppressed for decades and now have more power to express themselves and act.

- Mike  

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Michael Troy

Expertise

My specialties are 17th through 19th Century history, especially in the Americas and Europe. I also have a fair knowledge of ancient Greek and Roman History, and some knowledge of Medieval European history. My expertise is focuses on Military and political history, but I`ll take a crack at anything.

Experience

I have been a guest lecturer at George Washington University. Mostly, I have just read hundreds of books about world history.

Publications
http://unlearnedhistory.blogspot.com/

Education/Credentials
J.D. Univ. of Michigan B.A. George Washington University

Awards and Honors
Truman Scholar

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