General History/egyptian history


1. Were any of the ancient Egyptians Coptic Christians?
2. Are any of the modern Egyptians descended from the ancients?
3. What symbolism did the question mark have in ancient Egypt?  
4. What symbolism does the Uraeus (Cobra) on the Nemes (headress) and how does it associate with the sphinx?
5. What symbolism did the The crook (heka) and the flail have? Thank you!


1. I suppose it depends on when you consider "ancient" Egypt to have ended.  Many historian consider the ancient period to have ended when Alexander the Great invaded in 352 BC.  That was nearly 400 years before Christianity began.  So there were no Christians anywhere during that ancient period.

2. Modern Egyptians are largely the descendents of the people who lived there thousands of years ago. Of course, there have also been many who immigrated to Egypt since ancient times, but they have largely interbred with the locals to create today's population.

3. I'm not sure that I have ever seen a question mark in Egyptian hieroglyphs so I don't think it has any symbolism.  Ancient Egyptian writing, of course, did not use punctuation at all.

4. Uraeus, the Cobra, was used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity, and divine authority.  The cobra was believed to be a protector for evil forces.  Its appearance on the headdress of the sphinx associated that creature with the Pharaohs who ruled Egypt.

5. The crook and flail are commonly associated with the god Osiris from whom the ancient Pharaohs were believed to have descended.  Pharaohs portrayed as holding them is an indication of their association with Osiris and an indication of their divine authority to rule.

- Mike

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Michael Troy


My specialties are 17th through 19th Century history, especially in the Americas and Europe. I also have a fair knowledge of ancient Greek and Roman History, and some knowledge of Medieval European history. My expertise is focuses on Military and political history, but I`ll take a crack at anything.


I have been a guest lecturer at George Washington University. Mostly, I have just read hundreds of books about world history.


J.D. Univ. of Michigan B.A. George Washington University

Awards and Honors
Truman Scholar

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