General Writing and Grammar Help/to be+verb


Hope you are well. What is the paraphrase of parts in quotations in the following sentences?

Japanese and Korean industrial production fell more than economists estimated last month, "as slowdowns in China and Europe weighed on exports, building the case for more monetary easing."

"An increasing risk that Japan's economy will shrink this quarter and the failure of central bank loosening to dislodge deflation may increase pressure for officials to ease at either of two meetings next month."

Sorry to take your time Roy, but the paraphrases are really important for me.

Looking forward to hearing from you soon.

Best of luck,

ANSWER: Hello Mehdi - and thanks for the question.

I'm sorry to say that paraphrasing writing like this is extremely difficult.

That's because it is very specialist prose which uses a lot of jargon.

Words such as 'weighed', 'easing', 'loosening', dislodge', 'pressure', and 'ease' are being used metaphorically here. This is economic jargon.

In the first example the quotation is not very well linked grammatically to what precedes it.

And the second example is hard to read - largely because the subject (An increasing risk) is so far from the main verb (increase).

If I had a gun at my head, I would paraphrase them as follows

"A decrease in Chinese and European production may call for printing more money."

"If Japan's economy shrinks and deflation continues, it may be necessary to print more money."

That's the best I can do.

I hope it helps a little.

Best wishes

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How have you been these days?

In the following sentence which verb is correct after "is"? If all are correct, then is there a difference in meaning?

"What one has to do in learning a second language is "to learn/learn/learning" the differences.


Hello Mehdi - and thanks for your question

"What one has to do in learning a second language is to learn the differences". - for written English.

"What one has to do in learning a second language is learn the differences". - OK for spoken English

I hope that helps.

Technically, the sentence is incomplete.

"the differences between X and Y" needs to be added.

Best wishes

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Roy Johnson


I can answer questions on English language, grammar, writing skills, and study skills. I am particularly experienced in the writing skills required for academic essays, term papers, reports, dissertations, and post-graduate theses.


I have forty years experience as a tutor and as the author of books on writing and study skills. For thirty years I was a tutor for the Workers' Educational Association, which specialises in courses for adult students and preparing mature students for university. I was also a tutor for the Open University between 1975 and 2010. During that time I have also written a number of books on writing and study skills. In the last ten years or more I have specialised in creating computer-aided learning materials and online learning courses.

"Making the Grade" (Manchester University Press) 1990 "Studying Fiction" (Manchester University Press) 1991 "Marking Essays" (Clifton Press) 1993 "Revision and Examinations" (Clifton Press) 1993 "Writing Essays" (Clifton Ress) 1996 "Study Skills" (Clifton Press) 1996 "Electronic Writing" (Clifton Press) 1996 "Improve your Writing Skills" (Clifton Press) 2010 "Writing Essays 3.0" (Clifton Press) 2008 [computer program] "English Language 3.0" (Clifton Press) 2008 [computer program] "Study Skills 2.0" (Clifton Press) 2008 [computer program]

My first degree was in mechanical engineering (HNC). I then switched to literary studies and philosophy. My second degree was a BA in English and American Literature (from Manchester University - UK). I also have an MA in Comparative Literary Studies, and my doctoral thesis (PhD) was in the relationship between literature and politics.

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