General Writing and Grammar Help/Which and That

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Question
1. Customers need to consider carefully ............ kind of interior fittings will best satisfy both their needs and tastes.

a. that b. however c. which d. with

2. The ABC Department Store advise its customers that the .......... amount of their purchases must be paid within 14 days in order not to incur late fees.

a. much b. all c. every d. full

- Dear Ted! My teacher told me that the answer of 1) is "which" and the answer of 2) is "full". I would just like to know why I cannot choose "that" instead of "which" and "all" instead of "full".

Thanks so much in advance!

Steven

Answer
Dear Steven:

No nomination again!  What did I do wrong or what didn't I do right?

Ted

******************

Question:
1. Customers need to consider carefully ............ kind of interior fittings
will best satisfy both their needs and tastes.

a. that b. however c. which d. with

2. The ABC Department Store advise its customers that the .......... amount of
their purchases must be paid within 14 days in order not to incur late fees.

a. much b. all c. every d. full

- Dear Ted! My teacher told me that the answer of 1) is "which" and the answer
of 2) is "full". I would just like to know why I cannot choose "that" instead of
"which" and "all" instead of "full".

********

WHICH AND THAT

There are two rules that apply when determining the correct word.  One of them is quite complicated and refers to restrictive vs. non-restrictive elements.  [I will not type the lengthy explanation here, but I will send it to you, if you like.]

Here is the rule that applies to your question:

Using Which, Who and That

"The relative pronoun 'who' should be used for people; whereas, 'which' should be used for things. The relative pronoun 'that' can be used for either, but it is quite unfashionable to use 'that' for people. (The consensus seems to be that using 'that' for people is still acceptable in speech and informal writing, but avoid doing it in formal writing.)"

***

Since you are writing about "fittings," which are "things," you should use WHICH.  Use THAT when you refer to people:  Of all the students THAT are in my class, Steven is the most intelligent.

*** In the second sentence, the implication is that TOTAL AMOUNT must be paid.  "Much" does not mean TOTAL.  The other three options do mean TOTAL, but two of them cannot be used to modify the noun AMOUNT:  You cannot have a ALL AMOUNT.  You cannot have a EVERY AMOUNT.
Thus, FULL is the only correct option.  

If you choose to use the word ALL, you must change the structure of the sentence:  The ABC Department Store advises its customers that they must pay ALL of the money due on their accounts, in order not to incur late fees.    

FULL is the only adjective of the four options that can immediately precede the noun AMOUNT.
The other three require sentence revisions in order to be used.  Adding prepositional phrases is the common revision.

Ted

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Ted Nesbitt

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I am the bibliographic instruction and reference librarian at a public college. Some members of the English department recommend me to their students. I offer assistance in grammar, punctuation, sentence structure, and paragraph development. My master`s thesis concerns William Faulkner`s tragic novels. I formerly taught advanced placement English at two schools in the Philadelphia area.

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I have been one of the highest-ranked volunteers in this category for more than a decade.

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B. A. and M. A in English; MSIS in Library & Information Sciences; graduate study in philosophy

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