General Writing and Grammar Help/include

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Question
Hello Brian

I'd like to ask you about something from the sentence below:

At the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, when we got the
biosafety clauses to include the Convention on Biological
Diversity, U.S. President Bush stormed out and refused to
sign the convention.

--- It's not clear to me because there is no "in" after the word "include". So does it mean: At the Summit we wanted the biosafety clauses to include IN the Convention on Biological Diversity, which Bush didn't want to sign?

Is it what it says? How do you understand it?

Thanks

Answer
Hi Luke!

Whether the word "include" comes with the preposition "in" depends on the subject.  If the subject is a person, include most come with an indirect object - the object which follows after a preposition.  However, if the subject is not a person, then the indirect object would become REDUNDANT because the subject and indirect object are the same!

In case you didn't know, redundant means information which is unnecessarily repeated.  There is another situation where indirect objects are unnecessary and therefore redundant.  In the specific example you gave me, even though the subject is a person, the indirect object is still redundant because it has been established at the beginning of the sentence.  If we included an indirect object, the sentence would become this:

"At the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, when we got the biosafety clauses to include the Convention on Biological Diversity IN THE RIO EARTH SUMMIT."

As you can see, it would be repeated, and therefore unnecessary, information.

I hope that helps!

General Writing and Grammar Help

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Brian

Expertise

Anything to do with word usage and/or grammar, plus the fundamentals on almost any type of writing (especially creative writing, such as poetry, short stories, movie/dramatic scripts, etc.)

Experience

Majored in English literature in college; have published short stories and poems, currently teaching English as a second language to foreigners

Education/Credentials
As mentioned above, a bachelor's in English Literature and also a CELTA certification which enables me to teach English as a second language to foreigners.

Awards and Honors
Editor's Choice for a national poetry contest. 2nd prize for a short story in a city-wide short story contest.

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