General Writing and Grammar Help/Noun phrase

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Question
Dear Ted,
I have some questions about Noun phrase. I don't know how to form a noun phrase. For example, " Japan is an economically developed country", why don't we use "developing" instead of "developed". Other examples, " a decayed tooth", at first, i thought that decayed is a adjective, but when i looked up dictionary, i couldn't find "decayed". My friends told me that it is a noun phrase, but i don't understand how to form words like that. In " receiving room", i also don't understand why we use Ving.
I really looking forward to hearing from you.
Thank you sincerely !

Answer
Dear Dat:

I don't think I have received a question from you in the past.  I do happily help other
people from Vietnam.  So, it is good to hear from you.  By the way, I would have answered much sooner, but I spent yesterday in the hospital having tests done for a major surgery in November.

*****

Dear Ted,
I have some questions about Noun phrase. I don't know how to form a noun phrase.
For example, " Japan is an economically developed country", why don't we use
"developing" instead of "developed". Other examples, " a decayed tooth", at
first, i thought that decayed is a adjective, but when i looked up dictionary, i
couldn't find "decayed". My friends told me that it is a noun phrase, but i
don't understand how to form words like that. In " receiving room", i also don't
understand why we use Ving.

*** Japan is an economically DEVELOPED country.  The use of the PAST PARTICIPLE "developed" indicates that Japan has already reached the status of being developed.

*** Japan is an economically DEVELOPING country.  The use of the PRESENT PARTICIPLE "developing" suggests that Japan is STILL in the PROCESS of developing.  It would be logically incorrect to use this version, because we know that the country of Japan is HIGHLY DEVELOPED.

*** The reason you don't find "decayed" in the dictionary is because it is the PAST PARTICIPLE of the verb "decay."  Dat, a participle is NOT a verb; it is a word BASED ON a verb.  Participles, gerunds, and infinitive are all based on verbs, and they are called VERBALS or VERB FORMS.  Your friends are somewhat accurate in calling "decayed tooth" a noun phrase, but they are not completely correct.  The structure of "decayed tooth" is that "tooth" is the noun, and "decayed" is the adjective, describing the noun "tooth."
"Decayed" is a PAST PARTICIPLE, used AS an adjective.  The PRESENT PARTICIPLE is "DECAYING tooth."

"Receiving room" is another example.  From the verb "receive," we get the PRESENT PARTICIPLE "receiving."  We take the "root " of receive, drop the final "e" and add "-ing." That gives us the PRESENT PARTICIPLE.

We start with any verb, such as "start" or "believe."  We add "-ing" to the verb to form the present participle, and we add "d" or "ed" to form the past participle.  So, "start" is the verb; "starting" is the present participle; and, "started" is the past participle.

The race will START [verb] at noon.
The STARTING [present participle] time of the race is noon.

"Believe" is different, because it ends with the letter "e."  To form the present participle, we drop that "e" and add "-ing."  

Mary believes [present tense] in unicorns.
Mary, believing [present participle] in unicorns, spent her entire vacation trying to find
one of these mythical creatures.

I would like you to read the example and do the exercises at this site:

http://www.dailygrammar.com/archive.html

The various verb forms are discussed in lessons 206 through 245.  [The answers to the tests are given at the end of each lesson, so you can see how well you understood the lessons themselves.]

I am sorry for writing so much, but your question is a very serious one and I wanted to give you as much information as possible.

If this is your first time using Allexperts, please complete the evaluation form that comes with my answer.  I would greatly appreciate your evaluation.

I look forward to hearing from you again!

Ted

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Ted Nesbitt

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I am the bibliographic instruction and reference librarian at a public college. Some members of the English department recommend me to their students. I offer assistance in grammar, punctuation, sentence structure, and paragraph development. My master`s thesis concerns William Faulkner`s tragic novels. I formerly taught advanced placement English at two schools in the Philadelphia area.

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I have been one of the highest-ranked volunteers in this category for more than a decade.

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B. A. and M. A in English; MSIS in Library & Information Sciences; graduate study in philosophy

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