General Writing and Grammar Help/close verb-adjective.


Hi Martha,
I have some confusion with the word "close". As a verb, the word has the same meaning with "shut" or "end", so when i say : Her chance to go to study abroad is closed due to the result of the examination. It means that she can't go to study abroad. Is that right ?.
But as a adjective, the word "close" is synonymous to the word "near", so when i say : The chance to go to study abroad is close to her. It means that she is likely to take the chance. Is that right ?.
If my two above questions are right, it make me feel very difficult to listen exactly the meaning of the sentence. Therefore, i hope you can help me clarify the meaning of the word "close" as a verb and adjective.
Thank !

Ok!  Let's try again!

=Close= is one of those words that is pronounced in two different ways and thus has two different meanings.  Many languages have these same kinds of words!



=Close= pronounced with a =Z= is a verb.  As you have noted, it means "to shut."
The window of opportunity to study abroad has closed.


=Close= pronounced with an =S= is an adverb; sometimes it is an adjective.  With this pronunciation and in adverb form, it means "near-by," as you stated.  =Near-by= can be a physical location or it can be time.

She is standing close to me. [adverb of physical location]
The time of the train departure is close. [adverb of time]

She is a close relative. [adjective]
Note:  In this use, =close relative= means a relative such as mother/father, sister/brother, aunt/uncle, grandparent, child; it does not mean a relative such as the grandson of your father's cousin.


You are correct with the sentence using =close= as a verb.



When you write "the window is closed to her," that means her opportunity to study abroad does not exist now because of her grade on the examination.

=Close= in this sentence does not mean "chance."  


I hope I have answered your question.  If not, please write again!

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Martha Beth Lewis


I will answer questions having to do with grammar, plurals, punctuation, capitalization, mood, person, tense, and so on, as well as word usage and word choice. If you want a quick answer to a specific question, particularly if you wish to use formal American English for business or academic purposes (MLA), I can give you a timely response. I also can address word choice, clarity, structure, and similar concerns involving English as a second language. If you want advice of a deeper editorial nature (e.g., substantive [line] editing), please consult an Expert who offers this sort of assistance; I do not offer this sort of assistance.


I was employed as an editor for the graduate school at a major U.S. university and specialized in dissertations. I have over 200 publications in professional journals, consumer magazines, and newspapers. I am the author of five books and numerous syllabi in an arts field. I also am a freelance line editor, copy editor, and proofreader (over 40 years), and I have written or edited countless community organizations' newsletters and promotional materials.

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