General Writing and Grammar Help/abstracts



Do abstracts come before or after writing the body of a research paper? It seems like it should come after writing the body, but we are required to submit an abstract before that. This is for a 30+ page capstone research paper.


Hello Ian,

In most cases, the abstract is written after the research is complete because the abstract does describe the findings and results.  However, your professor may be using the abstract as a framework for your research so that he/she can see if you are on track with your pape)r.  According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(2010, if you were writing an theory-oriented paper, you would discuss in your abstract the theory and how it works and linkages to other theories. At this point, you do not know the outcome, but you might be able to speculate.

Best regards,

Dr. D.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

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Deborah Burgess


Essays--I can assist students with questions concerning the process of writing an essay including preparation of an outline, development of a topic, development of the thesis statement and topic sentences, and paragraph development. I can assist students in helping them determine the proper rhetorical modes for their essay (narration, illustration, description, process analysis, comparison and contrast, and argumentation. I am able to answer questions concerning rules of style for a research paper including referencing sources. I am able to address questions regarding punctuation and grammar.


I teach a writing workshop for the University of Phoenix (Richmond Campus) and two college courses: Essentials of College Writing and Elements of Composition.

Doctor of Management--University of Phoenix Masters in Human Resources--George Washington University B.A.--French and Linguistics, Oakland University

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