General Writing and Grammar Help/sentences

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Question
1. Lawmakers often debate what level of mental illness should preclude the death penalty.

There have been plenty of debates whether the MRT killer suffered mental health problems before the attack. If he is proven to have been insane, he could be precluded from the death penalty.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)   In the first sentence, can I replace “preclude” with “prevent”, “forestall”, “hinder”, “obstruct”, “restrain”?
(2.)    Or can I replace it with “exempt/ excuse someone from” or “be exempt/ excuse from”?


2. Plans to organize a curriculum have been hampered by difficulties.
Normal circulation is hindered when a layer of warm air sits on top of cooler air.

(1.)   In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “hampered” ? “Hindered”, “halted”,  “stopped’,“precluded”, “prevented”, “forestall”, “obstructed” or “restrained”?
(2.)   In the second, what is a substitute for “hindered”?  “Hampered”, “halted”,  ,“precluded”, “prevented”, “forestall”, “obstructed” or “restrained”?


3.The United States prohibited the sale and consumption of alcohol in the early 1920s.
According to the law, the transportation and dumping of chemical substances was forbidden.


(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “prohibited”?  “Stopped”, “forbade’, “banned”or “barred”?
(2.)    What is a substitute for “forbidden”? ““Prohibited”?  “Prohibited
“,“Stopped”, “forbade’, “banned”or “barred”


4, Corsets were normally so tightly laced that a woman’s breathing was inhibited and her ribs are prone to damage.
The chains were still unable to restrain the elephant from breaking free.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “inhibited”? “Restrained”, “obstructed”, “hindered”, “precluded”?
(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “restrained”? “Prevented”, “forestalled”, “hindered”, “obstructed”,, “forbidden”?

Answer
Question:
1. Lawmakers often debate what level of mental illness should preclude the death
penalty.

There have been plenty of debates whether the MRT killer suffered mental health
problems before the attack. If he is proven to have been insane, he could be
precluded from the death penalty.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct?

*** YES

(1.)   In the first sentence, can I replace “preclude” with “prevent”,
“forestall”, “hinder”, “obstruct”, “restrain”?
(2.)    Or can I replace it with “exempt/ excuse someone from” or “be exempt/
excuse from”?

**** The best synonyms for "preclude" are "overrule," "prohibit," "exempted," and "proscribe."
"Forbidden" is also sometimes used.  Your examples are good, but the best synonym would suggest the idea that an action is BANNED BEFORE it is committed.    

2. Plans to organize a curriculum have been hampered by difficulties.
Normal circulation is hindered when a layer of warm air sits on top of cooler
air.

(1.)   In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “hampered” ? “Hindered”,
“halted”,  “stopped’,“precluded”, “prevented”, “forestall”, “obstructed” or
“restrained”?

*** "Hampered" does not mean permanently delayed.  I would use any except "precluded."  I would also insert the adverb "temporarily" somewhere appropriate in the sentence.

(2.)   In the second, what is a substitute for “hindered”?  “Hampered”, “halted”,  
,“precluded”, “prevented”, “forestall”, “obstructed” or “restrained”?

*** All except "precluded."  To my mind, "precluded" means "no way is this allowed."  Something that is "precluded" is NOT an option.  It is forbidden.


3.The United States prohibited the sale and consumption of alcohol in the early
1920s.
According to the law, the transportation and dumping of chemical substances was
forbidden.


(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “prohibited”?  “Stopped”,
“forbade’, “banned”or “barred”?

*** All of them.

(2.)    What is a substitute for “forbidden”? ““Prohibited”?  “Prohibited
“,“Stopped”, “forbade’, “banned”or “barred”

*** All of them.



4, Corsets were normally so tightly laced that a woman’s breathing was inhibited
and her ribs are [WERE} prone to damage.
The chains were still unable to restrain the elephant from breaking free.

(1.)    In the first sentence, what is a substitute for “inhibited”? “Restrained”,
“obstructed”, “hindered”, “precluded”?

*** All except "precluded."
*** Webster's Dictionary definition of "preclude" -- (1) to make impossible by necessary consequences; (2) to rule out in advance.

(2.)    In the second, what is a substitute for “restrained”? “Prevented”,
“forestalled”, “hindered”, “obstructed”,, “forbidden”?

*** You don't have "restrained" in the second sentence.  You used the infinitive "to restrain."
I would use the first three of your examples, but not "obstructed" and "forbidden."

Ted

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Ted Nesbitt

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I am the bibliographic instruction and reference librarian at a public college. Some members of the English department recommend me to their students. I offer assistance in grammar, punctuation, sentence structure, and paragraph development. My master`s thesis concerns William Faulkner`s tragic novels. I formerly taught advanced placement English at two schools in the Philadelphia area.

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I have been one of the highest-ranked volunteers in this category for more than a decade.

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B. A. and M. A in English; MSIS in Library & Information Sciences; graduate study in philosophy

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