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General Writing and Grammar Help/word meaning, parallel structure

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Hi Ted, How are you getting on :)
i have some confusion and need your help.
First, what is the difference between "labouring" and " working" in this sentence " i prefer labouring to working as a waiter ". I saw it on Oxford dictionary and can't get the meaning.
Second, i know that we have to use parallel structure in writting, but what exactly does it mean ?. Does this sentence follow parallel structure " James did not commit the crime and was not aware of that his action would cause such serious consequences". I'm confused that the whether "did" and " was" are considered as following parallel structure.
Lastly, "as this qurestion assumes an injury suffered in such circumstances as to involve a State's responsibility, it must be supposed that .....". what is the role as well as the meaning of two words "as" in this sentence ?.
Thank you very much :).

Answer
Dear Dat:

PLEASE NOTE:  I decided that, after 15 years of service and more than 15,000 questions answered, it was time to take a break from Allexperts.  My eye doctor has advised me against spending too much time on the computer.  I discovered recently that most days I have been working on Allexperts' questions for at least 4 hours.

There are a few of my "regular" questioners with whom I would like to stay in contact.  You are one of them.  You are also courteous, ask interesting questions, and are generous in your responses.  

SO . . . please feel free to (1) try other experts OR (2) send your questions to my e-mail account.  I will answer questions as soon as I can.

My personal e-mail address is tedjnesbitt@netscape.net

Thank you.

Ted

*****************************************************************

First, what is the difference between "labouring" and " working" in this sentence " i prefer labouring to working as a waiter ". I saw it on Oxford dictionary and can't get the meaning.

*** The common definition of a "laborer" is "one who does manual labor, working with his hands."
Such work would include carpentry, brick laying, and plumbing."  A person who works on a farm or in a factory would be a "laborer."  "Laboring" [American spelling] is usually much harder work.  It is certainly harder than serving as a waiter.

Second, i know that we have to use parallel structure in writting, but what exactly does it mean ?. Does this sentence follow parallel structure " James did not commit the crime and was not aware of that his action would cause such serious consequences". I'm confused that the whether "did" and " was" are considered as following parallel structure.

*** The structure is NOT parallel.  [But first, you need to remove the word "of" after "aware."]
Here is how the structure looks:

He did not commit the crime
He was not aware that his action would cause such serious consequences

In the first sentence, the single word "crime" is the direct object.
In the second sentence, the entire noun clause "that his action would cause such serious consequence" is the direct object.

Because of the great difference in structure, you need to write these two ideas as separate sentences.  They actually express two different ideas.

Here is an example of parallel structure:

He did not commit the crime
He had an indisputable alibi

In both cases, the direct objects are single words, crime and alibi.



Lastly, "as this qurestion assumes an injury suffered in such circumstances as to involve a State's responsibility, it must be supposed that .....". what is the role as well as the meaning of two words "as" in this sentence ?.

** The sentence is terrible.  It sounds legal, like it was spoken or written by a lawyer.

The first use of "as" actually means "because." "Because this question assumes . . . . " The second use means "that," as in "such circumstances THAT involve a State's responsibility.

As I said, the sentence is really bad.  If you have to STUDY it to understand what it means, the sentence needs revising.  It is too confusing.

Ted  

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Ted Nesbitt

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I am the bibliographic instruction and reference librarian at a public college. Some members of the English department recommend me to their students. I offer assistance in grammar, punctuation, sentence structure, and paragraph development. My master`s thesis concerns William Faulkner`s tragic novels. I formerly taught advanced placement English at two schools in the Philadelphia area.

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I have been one of the highest-ranked volunteers in this category for more than a decade.

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B. A. and M. A in English; MSIS in Library & Information Sciences; graduate study in philosophy

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