General Writing and Grammar Help/omission of -ing

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Question
1) Dhaka standing by the side of Buringanga (a river of Bangladesh) is the capital of Bangladesh.

I can say this sentence in the following way.

2) Dhaka that stands by the side of Buriganga is the capital of Bangladesh.

In case of first sentence, since 'that' has been omitted, 'standing' has been used instead of 'stands'. Am I right?

Let consider the following sentence.

3) He found a toy that was under the chair.

I can say it in the following way.

4) He found a toy under the chair.

a) In case of fourth example, 'that' has been omitted. But why 'being' is not written instead of 'was'?

b) Would you like to explain when '-ing' is used if relative pronoun is omitted, and '-ing' is not used though relative pronoun is omitted?

Answer
1) Dhaka standing by the side of Buringanga (a river of Bangladesh) is the capital of Bangladesh.

I can say this sentence in the following way.

2) Dhaka that stands by the side of Buriganga is the capital of Bangladesh.

In case of second sentence, since 'that' has been omitted, 'standing' has been used instead of 'stands'. Am I right?

Dhaka standing by the side of Buringanga   = a gerund-expression ( standing   is a gerund). Similarly: The boys playing in the field looked very happy = The boys who were playing in the field looked very happy.

Dhaka that (or, which) stands by the side of Buringanga   .... is a clause, and it is equivalent to two sentences (i) Dhaka stands by the side of Buringanga, and (ii) It is the capital of Bangladesh.  


Let consider the following sentence.

3) He found a toy that was under the chair.

I can say it in the following way.

4) He found a toy under the chair.

a) In case of fourth example, 'that' has been omitted. But why 'being' is not written instead of 'was'?

b) Would you like to explain when '-ing' is used if relative pronoun is omitted, and '-ing' is not used though relative pronoun is omitted?

He found a toy that was under the chair.  

It is equivalent to two sentences: He found the toy; the toy was under the chair.

Again we have a clause.

In He found a toy under the chair  , under the chair   is a phrase (not a clause), and the whole is a single sentence. If you want to use a gerund, you might say: He found the toy lying under the chair. (simple sentence) Or: He found a toy that was lying under the chair. (complex sentence with two clauses).  
 

General Writing and Grammar Help

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SKUMAR IYER

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Those related to general and creative writings, usage, grammar, sentence construct, conversational English, etc. We also advise on ways to improve language skills, creative write-ups, grammar, phonetics, accent, spoken English, interview handling tips, group discussion, debating, public speaking, etc.

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I have been the co-ordinator of Easy Elite English, which delas in training youth in English Speaking and Communication Skills, Writing, Public Speaking, Debating, etc. I develop teaching materials, both audio-visuals as well as text, and also am the head of faculty training.

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