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Genetics/Could ivory be grown synthetically

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Question
In order to save elephants from poachers would it be possible to grow ivory synthetically like they did recently with first hamburger made from lab-grown meat that was served at press conference? And also maybe mammoth ivory?

Answer
Yes.

After all, ivory is just huge elephant teeth, right?

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2014076/Science-real-bite-Full-se

If you look at that article, you can see that scientists have made progress in growing implantable mouse teeth in a petri dish. Given that I work in a dental school, I know there's a lot of interest in this research area.

The problem with lab grown teeth is that teeth are made of bone cells, and bone cells grow very slowly. It takes 60 days to grow enough mouse cells large enough so they can be implanted to replace a mouse tooth. It takes six weeks after that for the new baby teeth to reach full mouse size.

An elephant grows its tusks throughout its natural lifetime; we wouldn't want to wait around for fifteen years (male elephant maturity, hopefully sizeable tusks by then) to get a business started. (Not to mention the lab-contamination issues. :)

While it is theoretically possible to generate lab-grown ivory, there's still a couple issues to be worked out before this could be a viable business plan.

For the elephant's sake, as well as anyone who's ever broken a bone and wants it to heal quickly, I hope we figure it out soon.

Cheers!

Genetics

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Trista Robichaud, PhD

Expertise

No homework questions, especially ones copied and pasted from textbooks. I will answer questions about principles or give hints, but I do not do other's homework. I'm comfortable answering basic biochemistry, chemistry, genetics, and biology questions up to and including an undergraduate level of understanding. This includes molecular biology, protein purification, and genetics. My training/inclination is primarily in structural biology, or how the shapes of things affect their function. Other interests include protein design, protein engineering, enzyme kinetics, and metabolic diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Regrettably, I cannot diagnose any disease. I can tell you how we currently understand the basic science behind a disease state, but I cannot recommend treatment in any way. Please direct such questions to your medical professional.

Experience

I hold a PhD in Biomedical Science from the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester. I specialize in Biochemistry, with a focus on protein chemistry. My thesis work involved the structure and functions of the human glucose transporter 1. (hGLUT1) Currently I am a postdoc working in peptide (mini-protein) design and enzymology at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio, Texas. I am in Bjorn Steffensen's lab, researching inhibitors of gelatinase A, a matrix metalloproteinase. I have also been answering Chemistry/Biochemistry questions on this site since summer 2010.

Organizations
2001 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2007 American Chemical Society 2007 Protein Society 2011 UTHSCSA Women’s Faculty Association

Publications
Publications Levine KB, Robichaud TK, Hamill S, Sultzman LA, Carruthers A. Properties of the human erythrocyte glucose transport protein are determined by cellular context. Biochemistry 44(15):5606-16, 2005. (PMID 15823019) Robichaud TK, Appleyard AN, Herbert RB, Henderson PJ, Carruthers A “Determinants of ligand binding affinity and cooperativity at the GLUT1 endofacial site” Biochemistry 50(15):3137-48, 2011. (PMID 21384913) Xu X, Mikhailova M, Chen Z, Pal S, Robichaud TK, Lafer EM, Baber S, Steffensen B. “Peptide from the C-terminal domain of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) inhibits membrane activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)” Matrix Biol. 2011 Sep;30(7-8):404-12. (PMID: 21839835) Robichaud TK, Steffensen B, Fields GB. Exosite interactions impact matrix metalloproteinase collagen specificities. J Biol Chem. 2011 Oct 28;286(43):37535-42 (PMID: 21896477) Poster Abstracts: Robichaud TK, Carruthers. A Mutagenesis of the Human type 1 glucose transporter exit site: A functional study. ACS 234th Meeting, Boston MA. Division of Biological Chemistry, 2007 Robichaud TK, Bhowmick M, Tokmina-Roszyk D, Fields GB “Synthesis and Analysis of MT1-MMP Peptide Inhibitors” Biological Chemistry Division of the Protein Society Meeting, San Diego CA 2010 Robichaud TK; Tokmina-Roszyk D; Steffensen B and Fields GB “Exosite Interactions Determine Matrix Metalloproteinase Specificities” Gordon Research Conference on Matrix Metalloproteinase Biology, Bristol RI 2011

Education/Credentials
INSTITUTION AND LOCATION DEGREE (if applicable) YEAR(s) FIELD OF STUDY Oakland University, Auburn Hills MI BS 1993-1998 Biochemistry University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester MA PhD 2001-2008 Biochemistry & Molecular Pharmacology University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio TX Postdoc 2009-Present Biochemistry

Awards and Honors
1998 Honors College Graduate, Oakland University 2009 Institutional National Research Service Award, Pathobiology of Occlusive Vascular Disease T32 HL07446 2011 1st Place, Best Postdoctoral Poster, Dental Science Symposium, UTHSCSA, April 2011

Past/Present Clients
Invited Seminars: Robichaud TK, Fields GB. “Synthesis and Analysis of MTI-MMP Triple Helical Peptide Inhibitors” Pathology Research Conference, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio Pathology Department (June 18th, 2010) Robichaud TK & Hill, B “How To Give A Great Scientific Talk” Invited Lecture, Pathobiology of Occlusive Vascular Disease Seminars, UTHSCSA (Nov 11th 2010), Cardiology Seminar Series, Texas Research Park (Feb 21st, 2011) Robichaud TK; Tokmina-Roszyk D; Steffensen B and Fields GB “Exosite Interactions Determine Matrix Metalloproteinase Specificities” Gordon-Keenan Research Seminar “Everything You Wanted to Know About Matrix Metalloproteinases But Were Afraid to Ask” Bristol, RI (Aug 6th, 2011)

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