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i am student of general geology
i am now in finals and have to submit my research report to get the degree,
i am interested in calculations of fracture density of Jurassic limestone,
is that really applicable in hydrocarbon exploration?
also companies use nowadays hydro fracturing techniques ???
what that really mean???


Fractures are very applicable to petroleum exploration.  Fractures are called secondary permiability and porosity.  Some very notable reservoirs have been found in fractured rocks that would have otherwise made poor reservoir rock.

Some formations most notably chalks, both in the North Sea and some in Texas have relied completely on fractures for their permiablity, having high primary porosity, but low  primary permiability.

Today most of the companies in the unconventional resource, shale gas and oil plays in both the US and China, utilize fracking to enhance permiability and porosity.

First they drill a horizontal well through the formation.  Then they hydraulically fracture the rock along the well bore using water along with additives and proppants pumped in under tremendous pressure.  The proppant, usually sorted sand or silicon beads hold the fractures open allowing oil or gas to flow into the well bore. They are in essence forming secondary porosity and permiability using man-made fractures.

Companies such as Southwestern Energy, Pioneer, and other large independent oil companies in the US are using this method.  Logging while drilling (LWD) is also important as it allows the drill bit to be steered keeping it in the formation as it moves horizontally.  Geosteering technology allows real time information to be transmitted to the geologist to help in keeping the well bore in the right zone.  


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Keith Patton


I can answer questions concerning physical and historical geology, environmental geology/hydrology, environmental consulting, remote sensing/aerial photo interpretation, G&G computer applications, petroleum exploration, drilling, geochemistry, geochemical and microbiological prospecting, 3D reservoir modeling, computer mapping and drilling.I am not a geophysicist.


I have 24 years experience split between the petroleum and environmental industries. I have served as an expert witness in remote sensing, developmental geologist, exploration geologist, enviromental project manager, and subject matter expert in geology and geophysical software development.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists
American Association of Photogrammetrists and Remote Sensing

Bachelor and Master of Science
Registered Geologist in State of Texas

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