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Geology/Active Fault Zones of Pakistan


Aoa. Sir, I have a question regarding tectonics. Can you please tell me about the active fault zones of Pakistan ? Please name some major active zones both in North and South and the reason associated for their active nature ?


Since the continent-to-continent collision of Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate began sometimes in Eocene, the subcontinent is undergoing dynamic environments in tectonic sense. The initial collision of the Indian Plate was forceful enough to raise the highest mountain ranges (Himalayas) along the zone of contact. Subsequently, the resistance slowed down the northward drift of the Indian Plate, but it is still moving northwards in a subtle manner. The manifestation of this are the earthquakes, which frequently occur and some of them were devastating like Quetta(1935) and Muzaffarabad (2005). If you plot the epicenters of the earth quakes, they generally fall along the major faults in Pakistan, indicating some movements. So the reason for the tectonic activity is the subtle northward drift of the Indian Plate.

Having said that the Chaman fault, Ornach-Nal fault, Kingri fault, the MBT, Kalabagh and Jhelum fault etc are major active zones from south to north. In farther north the MMT also shows recent activity as the terraces/alluvium show break. In the offshore, the Arabian Plate subducts under  the Eurasian Plate that causes tectonic activity in the region.

You may refer to 'Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan' by Kazmi and Jan (1997) for better understanding of the active zone of Pakistan.


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Nusrat Kamal Siddiqui (Mr)


I am a petroleum exploration geologist with about 40+ years of diversified experience. I can answer questions on stratigraphy, log interpretation, field studies based on set of logs and core results, general geology etc. Can provide guidance for career planning in earth sciences. Can not help in questions about hard rocks, igneous petrology & mineralogy, sequence stratigraphy and seismic.


Petroleum Exploration - field geology, stratigraphy, prospect generation, interpretation of satellite imagery (visual), log interpretation.

Retired in May, 2006 as Senior Manager Exploration from Pakistan Petroleum Limited after serving 26 years. Since then continuing in active service with petroleum exploration companies.A cumulative experience of about 40 years covers 30 years in petroleum exploration, 5 years hydrogeology experience in Libya, and about 5 years of dam geology in Pakistan.

-AAPG Bulletin (Vol.88, July, 2004); paper on Sui Main Limestone (Eocene), a prolific gas reservoir in Pakistan. -Have presented papers on diversified topics ranging from spirituality, flood control, remote sensing and off course geology in France, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, UAE, Kashmir, India and Pakistan that have been published in respective Special Proceedings. -ONGC Bulletin(India) Vol. 44, Number 2, December, 2009; Chapter 19.A & 19.B on basin architecture and stratigraphy of Pakistan, p.402-474.

BSc Honours in Geology and Master of Science in Petroleum and Structural Geology. PGD from ITC, The Netherlands.

Awards and Honors
-Remained Active Member of AAPG from 1990-2006; founding member of PAPG (a local affiliate of AAPG). -Life member of SEGMITE & AGID, and Senior Editor of SEGMITE magazine. -Member of the Board of Studies, i. Department of Petroleum & Gas Engineering (BUITMS, Quetta), and ii. Geology Department, Sindh University, Jamshoro. -Member of Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. -Represented Mining Journal, UK in Pakistan till 2007. -Chairman of Annual Technical Conference (ATC)& Oil Show, an SPE/PAPG annual event, in 2003. -Chairman Technical Committee (ATC, 2002).

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