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QUESTION: Dear C. Robert

Are Caves always Closed Structures ?. i.e. The Entry and Exit Points are always the same. There can be multiple entry points to enter the cave structure but the entry points will be always the exit points ?. Exit point i mean is coming out of the cave structure. For example in a Theater hall the entry (To enter the Cinema Hall) and exit (To exit the Cinema Hall) points may be different.

Will there be any specific advantages if exit points are created /constructed (only if exit points do not exist) within the cave
structures ?

Awaiting your reply,

Thanks & Regards,
Prashant S Akerkar

ANSWER: Hi Prashant,
Most cave have an entrance and an exit because they are carved by moving water.  There has to be a place for the water to start, and one for it to leave.  Of course, since this is "Nature" there are always exceptions but, in most cases, that is how caves are formed.  Many caves are mapped to find find both entrances.  Mammoth Cave, here in the States, is 390 miles long and has many exits.

I don't think there would be any specific advantage if a person were to create an exit.  If a cave already exists, the force that created it would probably be long gone.

Hope this helps.

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QUESTION: Dear C. Robert

Thank you.

Can Caves exploration help in identifying potential sources of Minerals
for Mankind ?.

Awaiting your reply,

Thanks & Regards,
Prashant S Akerkar

Hi, Prashant,
I would have to say that it is certainly possible that caves can be used as an exploration tool.  Any method a person can contrive to allow them to view the subsurface would be an aid.  Of course the geologist must first have some indication that a mineral resource might be in the area.  You can only find the ore if it is there.  But since caves cut through the strata they could be source for information and a possible avenue for mining the resource.  
I am not currently aware of any mineral resource that was found this way but that doesn't mean they haven't.  In Michigan the copper boom heated up when geologists explored the many pits found in Michigan's Upper Peninsula.  Those pits were first dug by the native aboriginal, maybe 1,000 years earlier, just to get copper.  They were extended underground to follow the ore.  These weren't caves but some were many meters deep.  
So, caves can certainly be source of information, at least.

Hope this helps.



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C. Robert Reszka, Jr.


I can answer any general geology question (rocks, minerals, stratigraphy, geomorphology etc.). My expertise is in the geology of the Michigan Basin, PreCambrian, Paleozoic and Recent. I can answer questions concerning mining and petroleum exploration and production and the laws concerning those activities. I can also answer questions concerning stratigraphy of the Michigan Basin. I will also answer questions about mineral and rock collecting in the Basin. I won`t be able to answer many specific questions on hydrology, geophysics or geochemistry. I may be able to answer very general questions in those venues.


I have been working for the State of Michigan for 36 years as a Geologist and a Resource Analyst. I have experience with Subsurface Geology and Petroleum Geology, mining in Michigan, and Sand Dune Mining and Protection issues.

Michigan Basin Geological Society

Decade of North American Geology.
Bedrock Geology of Michigan

BS Wayne State University

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