You are here:

Geology/Cave Structures.



Dear Farrukh

Are Caves always Closed Structures ?. i.e. The Entry and Exit Points are always the same. There can be multiple entry points to enter the cave structure but the entry points will be always the exit points ?. Exit point i mean is coming out of the cave structure. For example in a Theater hall the entry (To enter the Cinema Hall) and exit (To exit the Cinema Hall) points may be different.

Will there be any specific advantages if exit points are created /constructed (only if exit points do not exist) within the cave
structures ?

Awaiting your reply,

Thanks & Regards,
Prashant S Akerkar

Dear Prashant,

Caves are generally formed due to chemical and mechanical weathering. There is always an entry point but the exit can lie any where. There could be several points from where you can enter or exit. So, in general you can exit. In the glaciated environments the caves can be closed due to several reasons. Similarly, the solution caves can also be closed due to collapse etc.

I will not draw any boundary here! People can do engineering work in a certain cave to manifest the disasters and similar problems. Thus making the caves paths open if it is a fun place or economic one.


All Answers

Answers by Expert:

Ask Experts


Farrukh Qayyum


I can answer to the questions related to the following disciplines mainly: geology, geophysics, general geomorphology, stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy. I would like to answer Geophysical question too with keen interest specifically exploration related. I want to hear from users for their queries on exploration geophysics/geology. Especially, in the discipline of Reservoir Characterization from multi-discipline data. The questions related to basics and interpretational applications would be most welcome. I can not answer the questions related to astronomy, ecology/environmetal sciences, mineralogy and petrology/petrophysics. Such categories are not my discipline of experience. PLEASE avoid concise/short question. I expect you to write in details than expecting from my side. First try to Google your question / idea first or use the AllExperts search afterwards. This helps as most of the questions re-appear an in this manner I spend double time in answering the same question. I hope you understand.


Six years in different services with additional case studies of Pakistan, China, Saudi Arabia, North Sea, Africa and Netherlands offshore.

dGB Earth Sciences, The Netherlands. Please also visit my website (


Qayyum, F., de Groot, P., Hemstra, N., and Catuneanu,O., (in press) 4D Wheeler Diagrams Concept and Applications, Stratal and Time, Special Publication, The Geological Society, UK.

Qayyum, F., Hemstra, N., and Singh, R., 2013, A modern approach to build a 3D sequence stratigraphic framework, Oil and Gas Journal, Oct 7, 22-34.

Qayyum, F., Catuneanu, O., and de Groot, P., 2013, Developments and Future Trends in Wheeler Diagrams, 75th EAGE Conference & Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC, London, UK, 10-13 June.

On the horizon, de Groot, P., Qayyum, F., Oilfield Technology, January 2013.

Attributes play important role in seismic interpretation, de Groot, P., Qayyum, F., Hart's E&P Magazine, p. 31-34, October 2012.

From 2D to 4D Wheeler Diagrams, F. Qayyum, P. de Groot, and N. Hemstra, William Smith Meeting 2012, London.

Building a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework from HorizonCube and Well Data F. Qayyum, P. de Groot, J. Yasin 74th EAGE Conference & Exhibition, 2012

An old favourite, F. Qayyum and P. de Groot, Oilfield Technology, March 2012.

Using 3D Wheeler diagrams in seismic interpretation the HorizonCube method F. Qayyum, P. de Groot,N. Hemstra First Break 30 (3), 103-109,2012

Unification of Geological Phenomena Associated with Geohazards in the Persian Gulf - A Case Study Using 2D Seismic Data AC A. Misaghi, C. Amirbehboudi, J. Hassanzadeh, S. 73rd EAGE Conference & Exhibition, 2011

Superimposed Geologic Features in Seismic Interpretation, F. Qayyum, Yousaf, S., Malik, D., Zaheer, R., Manzoor, M.H., PAPG/SPE Annual Technical Conference, 125-136, 2010

Low Gas-Saturation Effect on AVO Response P Khalid, F Qayyum, and Broseta, D. PAPG/SPE Annual Technical Conference, 125-136, 2010

Logical expressions a basic tool in reservoir characterization F. Qayyum, G. Akhter, Z. Ahmad Oil & gas journal 106 (41). 2008

Master in Philosophy with specialization in reservoir characterization by using Sequence Stratigraphy. And master in Geophysics with a case study of Punjab Platform.

Awards and Honors
Position Holder in Academics.

Past/Present Clients
OMV, OGDCL, PPL, Dewan Petroleum, BG Group, Wintershall, RWE, Statoil, DNO, Petrobras ... are amongst some.

©2016 All rights reserved.