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Earth Layers
Earth Layers  
Assalamualaikum (I assume youre a muslim based on your name). I'd like to know, why is that the earth's layer; mainly lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere(lower mantle) and the outer and inner core does not follow the theory of solid will melts into liquid then vaporizes into gas"? (Solid>Liquid>Gas)

ok for instance, the lithosphere constitutes a rigid state. Going down the earth, the asthenosphere constitutes a plastic state. Which still follows the above theory of "solid to liquid to gas". Going down, the mesosphere does not follow the theory because its state is rigid. The outer core is liquid and the inner core is solid.

I dont understand this part. Could you explain it by relating temperature, pressure and depth? And could you suggest a book for this topic for my further reading? thanks!

Dear Harith,

This is an interesting question and it has been answered in may basic books of geology and earth sciences.

I give you a hint that I got from my school teacher. When you boil an egg to an acceptable level, you see the eggs layers in a same way as it has been done for the earth. Often, you notice that a half boiled egg remains semi-solid from the inner side. Unless you heat it up more.

Earth is a bit different. It contains a large variety of minerals that have their own melting point. If that changes, then the physical properties alter otherwise not. A point that we shall never ignore when we talk about temperature, is of pressure theory. There are some minerals, that remain solid even if the temperature increase.

Suggest readings of books.


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Farrukh Qayyum


I can answer to the questions related to the following disciplines mainly: geology, geophysics, general geomorphology, stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy. I would like to answer Geophysical question too with keen interest specifically exploration related. I want to hear from users for their queries on exploration geophysics/geology. Especially, in the discipline of Reservoir Characterization from multi-discipline data. The questions related to basics and interpretational applications would be most welcome. I can not answer the questions related to astronomy, ecology/environmetal sciences, mineralogy and petrology/petrophysics. Such categories are not my discipline of experience. PLEASE avoid concise/short question. I expect you to write in details than expecting from my side. First try to Google your question / idea first or use the AllExperts search afterwards. This helps as most of the questions re-appear an in this manner I spend double time in answering the same question. I hope you understand.


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Qayyum, F., de Groot, P., Hemstra, N., and Catuneanu,O., (in press) 4D Wheeler Diagrams Concept and Applications, Stratal and Time, Special Publication, The Geological Society, UK.

Qayyum, F., Hemstra, N., and Singh, R., 2013, A modern approach to build a 3D sequence stratigraphic framework, Oil and Gas Journal, Oct 7, 22-34.

Qayyum, F., Catuneanu, O., and de Groot, P., 2013, Developments and Future Trends in Wheeler Diagrams, 75th EAGE Conference & Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC, London, UK, 10-13 June.

On the horizon, de Groot, P., Qayyum, F., Oilfield Technology, January 2013.

Attributes play important role in seismic interpretation, de Groot, P., Qayyum, F., Hart's E&P Magazine, p. 31-34, October 2012.

From 2D to 4D Wheeler Diagrams, F. Qayyum, P. de Groot, and N. Hemstra, William Smith Meeting 2012, London.

Building a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework from HorizonCube and Well Data F. Qayyum, P. de Groot, J. Yasin 74th EAGE Conference & Exhibition, 2012

An old favourite, F. Qayyum and P. de Groot, Oilfield Technology, March 2012.

Using 3D Wheeler diagrams in seismic interpretation the HorizonCube method F. Qayyum, P. de Groot,N. Hemstra First Break 30 (3), 103-109,2012

Unification of Geological Phenomena Associated with Geohazards in the Persian Gulf - A Case Study Using 2D Seismic Data AC A. Misaghi, C. Amirbehboudi, J. Hassanzadeh, S. 73rd EAGE Conference & Exhibition, 2011

Superimposed Geologic Features in Seismic Interpretation, F. Qayyum, Yousaf, S., Malik, D., Zaheer, R., Manzoor, M.H., PAPG/SPE Annual Technical Conference, 125-136, 2010

Low Gas-Saturation Effect on AVO Response P Khalid, F Qayyum, and Broseta, D. PAPG/SPE Annual Technical Conference, 125-136, 2010

Logical expressions a basic tool in reservoir characterization F. Qayyum, G. Akhter, Z. Ahmad Oil & gas journal 106 (41). 2008

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