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why there is normal faulting in central and southern indus basin although there is collision of plates.????


Good question. But how it comes from Virginia?

When the collision took place the mountain ranges (Kirthar and Sulaiman) were one big landmass oriented probably ENE-WSW. With the collision, the landmass uplifted and we do find thrusting all along the foot-hills of the mountain ranges. Later, when the development of the present shape of the ranges was initiated then the strike-slip movement became increasingly dominant and we find strike-slip faults right from Chaman/Ornach-Nal in the west to Jhelum fault in the east; the relative movement of the respective fault blocks give them a touch of being normal faults.  Potwar is bounded by strike-slip on its western and eastern borders but it is all thrusting as we move from south to north. So, it is a gradual change in the relative movement of the Indian Plate (IP)and the developing orientation of the mountain ranges that brought this change from thrusting to strike-slip.

Now for Central and Southern Indus we have to look into the timing of the faulting. Prior to the collision, the IP seems to be under tensional regime.

Central Indus

I think, you mean Punjab Platform and the area up to the Jacobabad-Khairpur High. In Punjab Platform the underlying Mesozoic and older rocks show generally N-S oriented tensional faults, while their rejuvenation in the post-collision times resulted in the strike-slip faults in the overlying younger formations.

Southern Indus

Same is the case for Southern Indus. Here also, we have to look into the timing of the faulting. We have the horst-graben structural geometry in Cretaceous and older rocks of the Southern Indus (Badin area), and the bounding normal faults have a dominant N-S orientation. And the younger rocks (Cenozoic) show strike-slip effect.


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Nusrat Kamal Siddiqui (Mr)


I am a petroleum exploration geologist with about 40+ years of diversified experience. I can answer questions on stratigraphy, log interpretation, field studies based on set of logs and core results, general geology etc. Can provide guidance for career planning in earth sciences. Can not help in questions about hard rocks, igneous petrology & mineralogy, sequence stratigraphy and seismic.


Petroleum Exploration - field geology, stratigraphy, prospect generation, interpretation of satellite imagery (visual), log interpretation.

Retired in May, 2006 as Senior Manager Exploration from Pakistan Petroleum Limited after serving 26 years. Since then continuing in active service with petroleum exploration companies.A cumulative experience of about 40 years covers 30 years in petroleum exploration, 5 years hydrogeology experience in Libya, and about 5 years of dam geology in Pakistan.

-AAPG Bulletin (Vol.88, July, 2004); paper on Sui Main Limestone (Eocene), a prolific gas reservoir in Pakistan. -Have presented papers on diversified topics ranging from spirituality, flood control, remote sensing and off course geology in France, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, UAE, Kashmir, India and Pakistan that have been published in respective Special Proceedings. -ONGC Bulletin(India) Vol. 44, Number 2, December, 2009; Chapter 19.A & 19.B on basin architecture and stratigraphy of Pakistan, p.402-474.

BSc Honours in Geology and Master of Science in Petroleum and Structural Geology. PGD from ITC, The Netherlands.

Awards and Honors
-Remained Active Member of AAPG from 1990-2006; founding member of PAPG (a local affiliate of AAPG). -Life member of SEGMITE & AGID, and Senior Editor of SEGMITE magazine. -Member of the Board of Studies, i. Department of Petroleum & Gas Engineering (BUITMS, Quetta), and ii. Geology Department, Sindh University, Jamshoro. -Member of Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. -Represented Mining Journal, UK in Pakistan till 2007. -Chairman of Annual Technical Conference (ATC)& Oil Show, an SPE/PAPG annual event, in 2003. -Chairman Technical Committee (ATC, 2002).

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