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sir tell me the definition plunging fold and doubly plunging fold?
and please clear my concept by figure,
thank you sir

Dear Imran,

There is a little difference in this fold than normal anticlines/synclines. By definition these folds have a little different orientation than the actual axial plane. This means that their hinge line is pluging (as dipping) with a certain degrees. On a surface map, these folds can show a V-shape pattern.

Just google the images, you will find lots of example. Remember my text above to recognize them.


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Farrukh Qayyum


I can answer to the questions related to the following disciplines mainly: geology, geophysics, general geomorphology, stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy. I would like to answer Geophysical question too with keen interest specifically exploration related. I want to hear from users for their queries on exploration geophysics/geology. Especially, in the discipline of Reservoir Characterization from multi-discipline data. The questions related to basics and interpretational applications would be most welcome. I can not answer the questions related to astronomy, ecology/environmetal sciences, mineralogy and petrology/petrophysics. Such categories are not my discipline of experience. PLEASE avoid concise/short question. I expect you to write in details than expecting from my side. First try to Google your question / idea first or use the AllExperts search afterwards. This helps as most of the questions re-appear an in this manner I spend double time in answering the same question. I hope you understand.


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Qayyum, F., de Groot, P., Hemstra, N., and Catuneanu,O., (in press) 4D Wheeler Diagrams Concept and Applications, Stratal and Time, Special Publication, The Geological Society, UK.

Qayyum, F., Hemstra, N., and Singh, R., 2013, A modern approach to build a 3D sequence stratigraphic framework, Oil and Gas Journal, Oct 7, 22-34.

Qayyum, F., Catuneanu, O., and de Groot, P., 2013, Developments and Future Trends in Wheeler Diagrams, 75th EAGE Conference & Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC, London, UK, 10-13 June.

On the horizon, de Groot, P., Qayyum, F., Oilfield Technology, January 2013.

Attributes play important role in seismic interpretation, de Groot, P., Qayyum, F., Hart's E&P Magazine, p. 31-34, October 2012.

From 2D to 4D Wheeler Diagrams, F. Qayyum, P. de Groot, and N. Hemstra, William Smith Meeting 2012, London.

Building a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework from HorizonCube and Well Data F. Qayyum, P. de Groot, J. Yasin 74th EAGE Conference & Exhibition, 2012

An old favourite, F. Qayyum and P. de Groot, Oilfield Technology, March 2012.

Using 3D Wheeler diagrams in seismic interpretation the HorizonCube method F. Qayyum, P. de Groot,N. Hemstra First Break 30 (3), 103-109,2012

Unification of Geological Phenomena Associated with Geohazards in the Persian Gulf - A Case Study Using 2D Seismic Data AC A. Misaghi, C. Amirbehboudi, J. Hassanzadeh, S. 73rd EAGE Conference & Exhibition, 2011

Superimposed Geologic Features in Seismic Interpretation, F. Qayyum, Yousaf, S., Malik, D., Zaheer, R., Manzoor, M.H., PAPG/SPE Annual Technical Conference, 125-136, 2010

Low Gas-Saturation Effect on AVO Response P Khalid, F Qayyum, and Broseta, D. PAPG/SPE Annual Technical Conference, 125-136, 2010

Logical expressions a basic tool in reservoir characterization F. Qayyum, G. Akhter, Z. Ahmad Oil & gas journal 106 (41). 2008

Master in Philosophy with specialization in reservoir characterization by using Sequence Stratigraphy. And master in Geophysics with a case study of Punjab Platform.

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