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sir kindly tell me steps involved in getting design and strength parameters for designing of tunnel and slope stability related assignments.

Dear Salim, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings!

This topic is very wide and can’t be answered on a piece of paper. However while appreciating your interest I am trying to explain my level best to your question briefly.

There are three basic steps to construct a tunnel. The first step is excavation: engineers dig through the earth with a reliable tool or technique. The second step is support: engineers must support any unstable ground around them while they dig. The final step is lining: engineers add the final touches, like the roadway and lights, when the tunnel is structurally sound.

These three steps involve lot of Parameters like
• Geology.
• Geotechnical engineering.
• Excavation technology,  
• Design of the supporting structural elements, including long-term behavior of materials.
Each of these parameters may be responsible  on the main design features.  
The basics documents for tunnel design should include:
• The geological report presenting the results of the geological and geophysical survey.
• The hydrogeological report.
• The geotechnical report on site investigations, including the interpretation of the results of site and laboratory tests with respect to the tunnelling process, soil and rock classification, etc.,
• Information on line, cross-section, drainage, and structural elements affecting later use of the tunnel.
• Plans for and a description of the projected excavation or driving procedure, including the different cross-sections related to different ground conditions.
• Design documents for the types of excavation methods and tunnel supports likely to be applied, considering, e.g. excavation advance and face support (types and number of anchors, shotcrete strength, closure length, etc. ).
• The program for the in-situ monitoring of the tunnel by field measurements.
• The analysis of stresses and deformations (for unlined tunnels as well as for single-or double-lined tunnels), and the dimensioning of the tunnel support for intermediate phases and final linings.
• The design for waterproofing or drainage.
• Structural documents for the final design of the tunnel project, including the detailing.
• During and after the excavation, reports on the field measurements and interpretation of their results with respect to the response of the ground and the structural safety of the tunnel.
• Documentation of the problems encountered during the excavation and measures applied, e.g. strengthening the ground or changing the projected type of support, based on monitoring results.
The above sequence of these basic documents also provides the general outline of the design procedure.
Regarding the slope stability the following data is to be required
1.   Soil retaining structures with loading sequence
2.   Geological input and other laboratory tests
I hope the answer is in order and explains to your satisfaction.

With regards

Yours sincerely

Dr. D S Subrahmanyam  


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Dr D S Subrahmanyam


All questions related to Geology, Geotechnical Engineering (especially in-situ stress, in-situ Deformability and Shear investigations) required for underground tunnels and excavations, Dimensional Stone Mining. Can't answer Soil dynamics related to Geotechnical Engineering


Geology and Geotechnical Engineering and Dimensional Stone Mining

National Institute of Rock Mechanics (Govt of India)

International Journal of Mining Engineering and some other Indian journals

Doctorate in Geology

Awards and Honors
Reviewer for 3 International Journals

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