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Geology/Phosphate Rock Identification And Thickness Measurement


How are you hope fine. Sir i'am a student of Geology B.s from Pakistan. Sir my question is that we have learned an identification test about carbonate rocks such as Limestone, dolomite thatwhen we treat them with HCl it gives off Co2 emission and another method is hardness test but i would like to know what are other techniques to     identification test for Phosphate rocks?.
My second question is that we measure thickness of sedimentary rocks prependicular to bedding plane but what about igneous and metamorphic rocks how we measure their thickness?
Thank you
M.Nouman Qureshi.

ANSWER: Dear Nouman Qureshi, Goodmorning and fraternal greetings!

I am fine and thankyou for your question, my answer is given below.

Phosphate rock is a general term that refers to rock with high concentration of phosphate minerals, most commonly of the apatite group. Rock Phosphate' is a sedimentary rock composed of phosphate minerals high enough, especially apatite. It is used directly in fertilizer and as a source of phosphorous compounds.

Limestones can be identified easily by simple procedure by virtue of its chemical composition caco3,  but There is no simple procedure to find out these rocks as it was there in Limestones.
The following procedure is framed to identify the phosphate rocks

Reactivity of phosphate rock determines its potential as a direct fertilizer. The reactivity of the phosphate rocks  depends on various factors such as origin, crystallography, chemical composition and physical characteristics. Phosphate rocks of igneous and metamorphic origin are less reactive because of its crystalline form. The sedimentary rock deposits which possess microcrystalline structure are highly reactive.

Regarding your second question, sedimentary rocks are formed by transportation and deposition in different geological periods, that is the reason there are different layers including fossils in the stratum.

But the igneous rocks are formed by cooling and solidification of magma. Hence these rocks are formed as rock masses generally. But some laccoliths and lopolith structures show similar type of bedding due to solidification of magma layer by layer.

Metamorphic rocks are formed by high temperature and pressure and also chemically active fluids, these rocks also formed as rock masses generally, but show foliation and schstocity.

Hence it is very difficult/impossible to measure the bedding thickness in igneous and metamorphic rocks

I hope this explanation is sufficient for your query

with regards and love

yours sincerely

Dr D S Subrahmanyam

---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

Thanks for your answer related to phosphate rock. Sir i still have a query related to Igneous and metamorphic rock that we measure strike and dip very easily of sedimentary rocks in which the bedding plane is very visible but when there is a difficulty regarding igneous and metamorphic rock so do we find strike and dip of igneous rock or no???

Sir my other question is related to GIS. Actually sir this is my last year in B.s Geology so we are preparing our self for the thesis and project. Sir what my teacher of GIS who belongs to Computer department he needs some logic for example what are the applications for example like i have planned to do research on Exploration side in petroleum Geology so what can i do which is related to petroleum geology???. As GIS provides Spatial And temporal Information. SO what can i do in field of gis related to Petroleum geology? Take Care.
Thank You
M.Nouman Qureshi

Dear Nouman Qureshi, Goodmorning

Please refer my earlier answer that, in Igneous and Metamorphic rocks there won't be any bedding plane and you can't measure Strike and dip, however based on overall trend of the body, joints, foliation we can assess the deposits in which direction they are extending.

regarding the GIS applications in petroleum industry, it is one of the best tools nowadys for different findings
A sound understanding of geography is needed in every step of a petroleum industry starting from locating a place to drill a well, route a pipeline from the exploration site to the refinery plant, finding an ideal location for a refinery and lot more.
The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is gathering momentum in Oil and petroleum industry as a powerful tool for analyzing and displaying data.
GIS services can be applied in various stages during the development of projects, including: Petroleum Exploration, Production, & Pipeline Management

Uses of GIS in exploitation projects are perhaps more varied because exploitation evaluation typically deals with more extensive data sets than those typically used in exploration settings. Exploitation approaches are generally applied to mature producing areas where well control is dense, whereas exploration projects may not involve any wells at all. GIS is a particularly effective technology that enables exploration and exploitation teams to share information, analyze data in new ways, and integrate the evaluation process.
Innovative GIS technology is ideally suited for the overlay analysis of geographic, infrastructure, business conditions, and environmental factors and which can be integrated with other business risk or economic business planning engines to provide a focused business solution tool set. Geospatial information can be aptly used to map the gathering and transmission of products to a facility. GIS programs can be utilized to monitor the condition and flow of pipelines and determine the best pipeline locations to transport oil off the fields and to the refineries.

with regards
Dr. D S Subrahmanyam


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Dr D S Subrahmanyam


All questions related to Geology, Geotechnical Engineering (especially in-situ stress, in-situ Deformability and Shear investigations) required for underground tunnels and excavations, Dimensional Stone Mining. Can't answer Soil dynamics related to Geotechnical Engineering


Geology and Geotechnical Engineering and Dimensional Stone Mining

National Institute of Rock Mechanics (Govt of India)

International Journal of Mining Engineering and some other Indian journals

Doctorate in Geology

Awards and Honors
Reviewer for 3 International Journals

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