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sir  i student geology university of ajk muzzaffarabad  sir a i am asking you
*what are the best critries of oil trap.........?
*what are the best method for well log interpretation ...?
*please tel me the enviorment coal deposit'enviorment oil deposit' enviorment of salt deposit...?
*where the best hydrocarbon deposit in pakistan.....?
*discuss the main active fault in pakistan ....?
*sir i want to be good petroluem geologist what we can do ...?
*please sir send me the good auther name petroleum geology which more helpful for us
         thans
         regart usman

Answer
Dear Usman Khan,

Thanks for your questions.

Q) what are the best critries of oil trap.........?
Answer) you mean criteria? 3 types of traps  for petroleum are known

a) Structural trap such as folds or fault bounded anticlines or simply fault bounded such as  series of normal faults with horst (high side) and graben (low side)
b) stratigraphic traps such as sandstone pinchout, porosity pinchout, unconformity bounded traps, abundance of fractured carbonates, carbonate build up or reefs or bioherms, lateral facies changes etc

c)Combinations of a and b such as reefs in an anticline, or porosity or facies pinch out in a fold etc.

Q) *what are the best method for well log interpretation ...?

Answer) Each log determines certain naturally occurring rock and fluids properties Gamma Ray (differentiate shale vs non shale formations), Electrical Resistivity (determine fluids in rocks) Sonic logs (find out rock porosity) density (measures directly rock density), neutron log (measures amount of neutrons of Hydrogen Ions in rock and can be helpful to find gas zones).

Except Density (only if provided on log header with gram per cc)can be directly read whereas all other logs will be mathematically calculated and you have to use Archie equation for the steps which finally lead you to determine Water saturation in rock.

Pickett plot may also be used for determining water saturation (Reference oilfields glossary : A double logarithmic plot of a resistivity measurement on the x-axis versus a porosity measurement on the y-axis. The plot is named after G.R. Pickett. The plot is based on taking the logarithm of the Archie equation. Points of constant water saturation (Sw) will plot on a straight line with negative slope of value m. Water zones define the lowermost line on the plot. Since Sw = 1, the water resistivity can be determined from a point on the line. Once the water line is established, other parallel lines can be drawn for different Sw, assuming a constant n (usually 2). Other data can then be plotted and interpreted in terms of Sw. The same technique can be applied to the flushed zone, using flushed-zone measurements.)

*please tel me the enviorment coal deposit'enviorment oil deposit' enviorment of salt deposit...?

Answer) Coal is in wet humid conditions where conditions for vegetation are good such as swamps. Salt is formed in dry and hot climatic environment with common bright sun light such as present day Persian gulf where sea water dilution with fresh water charge is less than the evaporation by sun.

*where the best hydrocarbon deposit in pakistan.....?

Answer) Southern Sindh, Potwar, Kirthar and Sulaiman range and Kohat plateau.
*discuss the main active fault in pakistan ....?

Answer) Send as a fresh question.
*sir i want to be good petroluem geologist what we can do ...?

Answer) Cosntantly read geology and petroleum and learn from your elders. Work hard and keep the goal simple and straight
*please sir send me the good auther name petroleum geology which more helpful for us
        thans (Leverosn)


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