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Sir my question is why we separated Murree Formation and Kamlial Formation because both having same facies and environment of deposition also the age is same, How we can differentiate it in the field?


Good question.

Broadly speaking, the Murree Formation (FM) dominantly constitutes dark red to maroon color siltstone and clay inter-bedded with red, brown and gray color sandstone. The Kamlial FM, on the other hand, consists of purple-gray and dark brick-red sandstone which contains inter-beds of hard purple shale and yellow and purple intraformational conglomerates. The color and the general lithological description may not be a typical differentiation factor but you may notice that Kamlial is dominantly sandstone while Murree is dominantly siltstone and clay; though the color is also helpful in the field as the Murree imparts a maroonish hue to the terrain, as you see around Rawalpindi/Islamabad.

However, Kamlial is distinguished from the underlying Murree Fm by its usually spheroidal weathering and heavy mineral content in which tourmaline dominates epidote. In Murree Fm epidote dominates tourmaline.

During drilling high pressures may be encountered against Kamlial's basal part; apart from an operational problem it is otherwise a helpful indicator that the Muree top is not that far.

I suggest you also read the description in the book by Kazmi and Abbasi (2008).


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Nusrat Kamal Siddiqui (Mr)


I am a petroleum exploration geologist with about 40+ years of diversified experience. I can answer questions on stratigraphy, log interpretation, field studies based on set of logs and core results, general geology etc. Can provide guidance for career planning in earth sciences. Can not help in questions about hard rocks, igneous petrology & mineralogy, sequence stratigraphy and seismic.


Petroleum Exploration - field geology, stratigraphy, prospect generation, interpretation of satellite imagery (visual), log interpretation.

Retired in May, 2006 as Senior Manager Exploration from Pakistan Petroleum Limited after serving 26 years. Since then continuing in active service with petroleum exploration companies.A cumulative experience of about 40 years covers 30 years in petroleum exploration, 5 years hydrogeology experience in Libya, and about 5 years of dam geology in Pakistan.

-AAPG Bulletin (Vol.88, July, 2004); paper on Sui Main Limestone (Eocene), a prolific gas reservoir in Pakistan. -Have presented papers on diversified topics ranging from spirituality, flood control, remote sensing and off course geology in France, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, UAE, Kashmir, India and Pakistan that have been published in respective Special Proceedings. -ONGC Bulletin(India) Vol. 44, Number 2, December, 2009; Chapter 19.A & 19.B on basin architecture and stratigraphy of Pakistan, p.402-474.

BSc Honours in Geology and Master of Science in Petroleum and Structural Geology. PGD from ITC, The Netherlands.

Awards and Honors
-Remained Active Member of AAPG from 1990-2006; founding member of PAPG (a local affiliate of AAPG). -Life member of SEGMITE & AGID, and Senior Editor of SEGMITE magazine. -Member of the Board of Studies, i. Department of Petroleum & Gas Engineering (BUITMS, Quetta), and ii. Geology Department, Sindh University, Jamshoro. -Member of Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. -Represented Mining Journal, UK in Pakistan till 2007. -Chairman of Annual Technical Conference (ATC)& Oil Show, an SPE/PAPG annual event, in 2003. -Chairman Technical Committee (ATC, 2002).

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