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Sir, can you please tell me about structural traps of pakistan. by percentage and also by fields.
also,how fracture modelling will help in shale gas exploration or enhancing production..


Kohat-Potwar, Sulaiman Lobe and further south under the plains (Kandhkot, Qadirpur and Mari), and Kirthar Range and the Foredeep running to the east of Kirthar Range represent mainly  4-way structural traps. However, in Kohat-Potwar we also find fault- bounded popped-up anticlines. In the southeastern corner of Pakistan, the so called Badin area represents fault-block traps, which offer  typical horst-graben structural geometry.

On the Punjab Platform we find fault to the east structural traps.

So, dominantly Pakistan is represented by structural traps. Only on the flanks of the Khairpur-Jacobabad High, particularly on the eastern flank we do find stratigraphic-cum structural traps.  I would say almost 100 % are structural traps in Pakistan.

As you may be aware, the shale has maximum porosity without any (or minimum) permeability. The hydrocarbons are generated in shale and migrate into porous reservoirs to accumulate in commercial and economically extractable quantity. During migration considerable amount of hydrocarbons remain trapped in the shale's fine pores as it could not be expelled due to weakened hydro-dynamic conditions. Shale fracture modeling is done to design a fracturing geometry, which will maximize the flow of hydrocarbons to the well by creating hydraulic fractures around the well-bore. So it is basically for creating permeability in the shale. It is an expensive option and over and above that, number of wells increase considerably because of the close-spacing of wells.  


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Nusrat Kamal Siddiqui (Mr)


I am a petroleum exploration geologist with about 40+ years of diversified experience. I can answer questions on stratigraphy, log interpretation, field studies based on set of logs and core results, general geology etc. Can provide guidance for career planning in earth sciences. Can not help in questions about hard rocks, igneous petrology & mineralogy, sequence stratigraphy and seismic.


Petroleum Exploration - field geology, stratigraphy, prospect generation, interpretation of satellite imagery (visual), log interpretation.

Retired in May, 2006 as Senior Manager Exploration from Pakistan Petroleum Limited after serving 26 years. Since then continuing in active service with petroleum exploration companies.A cumulative experience of about 40 years covers 30 years in petroleum exploration, 5 years hydrogeology experience in Libya, and about 5 years of dam geology in Pakistan.

-AAPG Bulletin (Vol.88, July, 2004); paper on Sui Main Limestone (Eocene), a prolific gas reservoir in Pakistan. -Have presented papers on diversified topics ranging from spirituality, flood control, remote sensing and off course geology in France, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, UAE, Kashmir, India and Pakistan that have been published in respective Special Proceedings. -ONGC Bulletin(India) Vol. 44, Number 2, December, 2009; Chapter 19.A & 19.B on basin architecture and stratigraphy of Pakistan, p.402-474.

BSc Honours in Geology and Master of Science in Petroleum and Structural Geology. PGD from ITC, The Netherlands.

Awards and Honors
-Remained Active Member of AAPG from 1990-2006; founding member of PAPG (a local affiliate of AAPG). -Life member of SEGMITE & AGID, and Senior Editor of SEGMITE magazine. -Member of the Board of Studies, i. Department of Petroleum & Gas Engineering (BUITMS, Quetta), and ii. Geology Department, Sindh University, Jamshoro. -Member of Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. -Represented Mining Journal, UK in Pakistan till 2007. -Chairman of Annual Technical Conference (ATC)& Oil Show, an SPE/PAPG annual event, in 2003. -Chairman Technical Committee (ATC, 2002).

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