You are here:



Can you give me a brief description about the basin evolution of Indus, Balauchistan basin and axial belt, how these basin evolution related to coal formation?


You may be aware that the Indus basin belongs to the Indian Plate (IP) and the Balochistan basin is part of the Eurasian Plate (EP). The rifting (from Madagascar/Africa) sometimes in Early Mesozoic and drifting of the IP towards north eventually resulted in the initial collision of the two plates in late Mesozoic, and the main collision from Eocene onward. The Axial belt is a result of the juxtaposition of the two plates along the right-lateral Chaman-Ornach-Nal faults. The collision and the subduction of the IP under the EP resulted in the detachment of the IP's sedimentary cover to the east that evolved the highly tectonised Axial Belt with a mix of younger stratigraphy of both the IP and the EP, along with the obducted ophiolite. Now, this is my broad understanding of the process involved!

We find the coal at the base of Patala shale (Paleocene) and also at the K-T Boundary in the Potwar. In the upper part of the Ghazij shale (Eocene)  in east and south of Quetta, and very large Paleocene coal in the Thar region in the SE corner of Pakistan.

You better look into the literature describing the process involved in the formation of the sedimentary coal. But to me it is more related to the depositional environment, than to the evolution of the basins.  


All Answers

Answers by Expert:

Ask Experts


Nusrat Kamal Siddiqui (Mr)


I am a petroleum exploration geologist with about 40+ years of diversified experience. I can answer questions on stratigraphy, log interpretation, field studies based on set of logs and core results, general geology etc. Can provide guidance for career planning in earth sciences. Can not help in questions about hard rocks, igneous petrology & mineralogy, sequence stratigraphy and seismic.


Petroleum Exploration - field geology, stratigraphy, prospect generation, interpretation of satellite imagery (visual), log interpretation.

Retired in May, 2006 as Senior Manager Exploration from Pakistan Petroleum Limited after serving 26 years. Since then continuing in active service with petroleum exploration companies.A cumulative experience of about 40 years covers 30 years in petroleum exploration, 5 years hydrogeology experience in Libya, and about 5 years of dam geology in Pakistan.

-AAPG Bulletin (Vol.88, July, 2004); paper on Sui Main Limestone (Eocene), a prolific gas reservoir in Pakistan. -Have presented papers on diversified topics ranging from spirituality, flood control, remote sensing and off course geology in France, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, UAE, Kashmir, India and Pakistan that have been published in respective Special Proceedings. -ONGC Bulletin(India) Vol. 44, Number 2, December, 2009; Chapter 19.A & 19.B on basin architecture and stratigraphy of Pakistan, p.402-474.

BSc Honours in Geology and Master of Science in Petroleum and Structural Geology. PGD from ITC, The Netherlands.

Awards and Honors
-Remained Active Member of AAPG from 1990-2006; founding member of PAPG (a local affiliate of AAPG). -Life member of SEGMITE & AGID, and Senior Editor of SEGMITE magazine. -Member of the Board of Studies, i. Department of Petroleum & Gas Engineering (BUITMS, Quetta), and ii. Geology Department, Sindh University, Jamshoro. -Member of Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. -Represented Mining Journal, UK in Pakistan till 2007. -Chairman of Annual Technical Conference (ATC)& Oil Show, an SPE/PAPG annual event, in 2003. -Chairman Technical Committee (ATC, 2002).

©2017 All rights reserved.