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Assalamo alikom
R/sir, i have question about the geologic nature of hijr e aswad and hydogeology of Zam zam well??


Interesting questions.

I have worked on Ghar-e-Hira, more in a technical manner than religious, and have published a paper too. If you like, I can provide you the copy.

About Hijr-e-Aswad, I was asked a question by a Hindu, when I was presenting my above paper in Bangladesh. And I instantly said "It might be a meteorite!". It is almost jet black and does not look like a stone from the surrounding hills, when I had a very quick look during Haj. I may be wrong, but a sample would be helpful.

Zamzam is a miracle for sure. I have heard many people saying that it is the 'filtered' water from sea at Jeddah, without realizing that Makkah is about 350 m above sea level. Locally Ka'ba/Zamzam is situated in a depression with hills of fractured igneous/metamorphic/volcanic rocks all around. The regional gradient is from east to west (Red Sea). Unlike sedimentary rocks where we have reservoirs isolated by cap-rock, there may be no barriers for ground water flow in the igneous rocks, and the overlying recent sediments are also unconsolidated.  So the source is most likely in the east of Makkah. A likely source could be Taif in the southeast, which is much higher than Makkah, at an elevation of about 1700 m. Taif is a sort of hill-station for summer season. Reportedly rains are frequent there and if you explore Google earth there are a few dams also with filled water reservoirs. However, there is, for sure, a massive supply of water but the source is not yet fully established. But to me the real miracle is that the water from Zamzam is not contaminated by the sewage, where as there are residential areas all around at higher levels!

There is an exhaustive book ' Zamzam, the Holy Water' by Dr. Yahya Hamza Koshak. It was published in Jeddah in 1999. You my try to get a copy.


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Nusrat Kamal Siddiqui (Mr)


I am a petroleum exploration geologist with about 40+ years of diversified experience. I can answer questions on stratigraphy, log interpretation, field studies based on set of logs and core results, general geology etc. Can provide guidance for career planning in earth sciences. Can not help in questions about hard rocks, igneous petrology & mineralogy, sequence stratigraphy and seismic.


Petroleum Exploration - field geology, stratigraphy, prospect generation, interpretation of satellite imagery (visual), log interpretation.

Retired in May, 2006 as Senior Manager Exploration from Pakistan Petroleum Limited after serving 26 years. Since then continuing in active service with petroleum exploration companies.A cumulative experience of about 40 years covers 30 years in petroleum exploration, 5 years hydrogeology experience in Libya, and about 5 years of dam geology in Pakistan.

-AAPG Bulletin (Vol.88, July, 2004); paper on Sui Main Limestone (Eocene), a prolific gas reservoir in Pakistan. -Have presented papers on diversified topics ranging from spirituality, flood control, remote sensing and off course geology in France, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, UAE, Kashmir, India and Pakistan that have been published in respective Special Proceedings. -ONGC Bulletin(India) Vol. 44, Number 2, December, 2009; Chapter 19.A & 19.B on basin architecture and stratigraphy of Pakistan, p.402-474.

BSc Honours in Geology and Master of Science in Petroleum and Structural Geology. PGD from ITC, The Netherlands.

Awards and Honors
-Remained Active Member of AAPG from 1990-2006; founding member of PAPG (a local affiliate of AAPG). -Life member of SEGMITE & AGID, and Senior Editor of SEGMITE magazine. -Member of the Board of Studies, i. Department of Petroleum & Gas Engineering (BUITMS, Quetta), and ii. Geology Department, Sindh University, Jamshoro. -Member of Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. -Represented Mining Journal, UK in Pakistan till 2007. -Chairman of Annual Technical Conference (ATC)& Oil Show, an SPE/PAPG annual event, in 2003. -Chairman Technical Committee (ATC, 2002).

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