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Geology/dip azimuth


QUESTION: which is the limestone in Pakistan who has aeolian depositional environment?

ANSWER: Dear Muhammad Musa,

Aeolian Limestone which are deposited in the continents by sediments transported by wind.
These type of sediments have been found in  all part of the world in Quaternary sediments and any sediments older have neither reported nor could have easily be identified due to similarity with rocks of shallow marine carbonates in subsurface.

In Pakistan, aeoline deposits are in Thar (Sindh), Cholistan (Punjab)and Balochistan deserts in Kharan and near Chagai. Small scale deposts may be found any where specially near the beaches and also in Northern part of Pakistan in the foothills of highest monttain ranges of Karakoram, Himalayas and Hindukush.

However, in Thar desert the deposits are  mixture of clastics and carbonates. In fact you can see fossils fragments of Tertiary and Cretaceous age in the desert sands which clearly indicate that wind had brought these tiny particles of rock fragments from the outcrop of that age. The Cretaceous age rocks are exposed only at the Indian side of Kuch and kathiwar coastal belts way far in the south.

No older rocks of aeoline type deposits are otherwise reported any where else nor expected to present in subsurface.

Hope, this may help.


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QUESTION: sir what is the difference b/t true,apparent dip and azimuth.e,g please

Dear Muhammad Musa,

Thanks for your question.

True dip; dip of a stratum is the angle between the bedding and a horizontal plane  and is measured in a vertical plane that strikes at right angles to the strike of the bedding.
Apparent dip is any angle of the bedding other than vertical measured from the strike.

Take an example of a book and open from the center and keep it on a table  in a manner that one side should be vertical whereas other side tilting to your right hand side.  The tilting side is the true dip of the book (or bedding)if measured vertically from the hinge of the book. Hinge is strike of the bed. Apparent dip is any angle other than vertical angle or perpendicular measured from the hinge of the book (strike of the bed).

You can use following link for calculating true and apparent dips;

Azimuth is the direction of anything (bed or fold or any other geological or non geological thing)described from 0 to 359 degree. If bed is dipping westward  direction the azimuth will be  270 degree or 90 degree if eastward or 180 degree if southward.

Hope, this will help.




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Syed Tariq Hasany


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