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Geology/Geologic time and Layers of the earth


Hi! I'm doing some research on Geologic Time and Earth's Layer but due to limited resources I can't find some journals regarding to the topic. I'm from Tacloban, Leyte Philippines where super typhoon Haiyan landed. Below are the questions I can't answer.
1.What are the major events in each period
2.What are the specific studies conducted related to the establishment of our knowledge on Earth's layer and it's specific findings?
3.What are the function/role of each Earth layer's?
Thank you in advance. I'll be waiting for your response.


I lived on Okinawa back in the 1960's and rode out a few typhoons during my time there.  No fun.

I'll try to help you out, but these questions sound like homework.  I don't mind assisting, but what I don't have is the context needed to give you the proper answer that the teacher expects.  By this I mean, teachers pull stuff from books, and they don't always understand the material in the proper way, or they put their own emphasis on what they want you to know about a subject.

For instance:  What are the major events in each Period.  I am assuming they mean geologic period.  I would guess the teacher wants such things as Jurassic : Dinosaurs ruled the Earth.
or Pleistocene: Major period of Glaciation,  Carboniferous: large coal deposits are created..etc.  Do a search on Geologic Time scale and there should be graphics of the time periods and what went on.  Check your text book and there should be on in there too.

2) What specific studies conducted related our knowledge...I don't know what to tell you here.  Check your text book for studies of the Crust, Mantle.  They might be referring to deep drilling by the Glomar Challenger, deep wells drilled in the Soviet Union, and research relating to geophysics that defined the boundaries of the layers of the earth by using P and S waves.  

The 3rd question also reveals the teacher does not fully understand the  material.  The layers don't have any "function", they just are.  The Crust is the ridged cooled skin that allows us to live, and moves via plate tectonics, when the Asthenophere moves due to convection cells in the Mantle.  The molten iron rich core, provides the heat that drives the plate tectonic engine and generates the magnetic field that keeps the cosmic radiation from frying us like deep fried calamari.

Hopes this helps.



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Keith Patton


I can answer questions concerning physical and historical geology, environmental geology/hydrology, environmental consulting, remote sensing/aerial photo interpretation, G&G computer applications, petroleum exploration, drilling, geochemistry, geochemical and microbiological prospecting, 3D reservoir modeling, computer mapping and drilling.I am not a geophysicist.


I have 24 years experience split between the petroleum and environmental industries. I have served as an expert witness in remote sensing, developmental geologist, exploration geologist, enviromental project manager, and subject matter expert in geology and geophysical software development.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists
American Association of Photogrammetrists and Remote Sensing

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