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Question
dear sir,
         what is Geo-dynamic of Pakistan ?and what is Hazara- Kashmir-syntexis .


regard;
waqar ahmed

Answer
Dear Waqar,

Geodynamics  means the science dealing with dynamic processes or forces within the earth. This term generally refers to the tectonic activity of earth. So you can say that this subject deals with the tectonics of Pakistan.

I am quoting the following text for your reference;

Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis  is consisting of  northward-projecting loop or reentrant connected by a broad arcuate belt, called the western arc. The Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis, which is the pivot point of the great regional arc of the northwest Himalaya, is oriented slightly west of north and contains younger rocks in its core or axial zone; successively older rocks wrap around the periphery.

A system of boundary faults also wraps around the syntaxis and helps to define it. The southern part of the western limb of the syntaxis is divided into three structural blocks separated by major faults which show combined strike-slip and vertical displacement.

The structural development of the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis is believed to be related to the great regional arc of the Himalaya 150 miles to the north. Southward tectonic transport moving perpendicular to this great arc would converge on the axial zone of the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis, which is at the pivot point of the arc. The present syntaxial structure would be the natural result of such movement. Late-stage westward countermovement of the rocks in the axial zone resulted in the present westward overturning of the folds along the southern segment of the western limb of the syntaxis.

The Indus reentrant, as with the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis, also is interpreted to be the result of smaller scale tectonic convergence towards its present axial zone. Between the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis and the Indus reentrant, the rocks moved south to form the southward bulge of the western arc.

Excerpts reproduced from Geology of the Southern Himalaya In Hazara, Pakistan, and
Adjacent Areas  by JAMES A. CALKINS and TERRY W. OFFIELD, U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, and S. K. M. ABDULLAH and S. TAYYAB ALI, GEOLOGICAL SURVEY of PAKISTAN 1975

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