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Geology/mineral cleavage type


Dear Sir,
how many type of mineral cleavage ? and what mean by 4-direction 2-direction cleavage ?

Hi Waqar,
Let me reference you to the following website which illustrates the answer to your mineral cleavage question beautifully:
You can also go to my website of Free publications and download the Physical Geology Laboratory Manual:
On page 21 you will find a generic description and illustration of cleavage.
Hope this helps and answers your questions.


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Uwe Richard Kackstaetter, Ph.D. (Dr.K)


I can answer questions concerning minerals, mineralogy, gems, metals, groundwater, national and international geoscience field trips and anything that has to do with geology. As a public service and part as training for new geoscientists, our university department provides detailed FREE mineral identification for individuals with available non-destructive and destructive analytical procedures and a several page report. Please contact me for details or go to for details..


I am a professor of applied geology and mineralogy with many hours of field experience. Furthermore, I enjoy recreational gold prospecting and mineral collecting. As a professor I am engaged in research concerning minerals, their identification and their occurrence. I am currently developing inexpensive, accurate mineral identification procedures to be used by experts and lay people alike.

Member of the GPAA (Gold Prospectors Association of America) as well as the Association of Environmental Geochemists. Member of the GSA (Geologic Society of America) Member of the AIPG (American Institute of Professional Geologists)

Here is a small sampling: Mineral-rock handbook: Rapid-easy mineral-rock determination : written for anyone interested in minerals and rocks - Proctor, Peterson, and Kackstaetter;Macmillan Pub. Co. (New York and Toronto and New York) Physical Geology Laboratory e-Manual with 20 Lab Exercises [now available for FREE]: Colorado Front Range Self-Guided Geology Field Trips [FREE download] Kackstaetter, U.R. (2014): A Rapid, Inexpensive and Portable Field and Laboratory Method to Accurately Determine the Specific Gravity of Rocks and Minerals. The Professional Geologist, Vol. 51, No.2, AIPG. Kackstaetter, U.R. (2014): SEDMIN - Microsoft Excel (TM) spreadsheet for calculating fine-grained sedimentary rock mineralogy from bulk geochemical analysis. Cent. Eur. J. Geosci. DOI: 10.2478/s13533-012-0170-3

Ph.D. in Applied Geology and Mineralogy. I am actively teaching courses in mineralogy, igneous & metamorphic petrology, applied volcanology and a variety of national and international field courses with mineral collecting opportunities. Background in precious metal exploration and groundwater (hydrogeology).

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