Geology/Application of seismic stratigraphy in oil industry
Assalam o alaikum Sir,
I am student of geophysics (Bahria University) and this is my last semester. I want to know that how the seismic stratigraphy can be applied in oil industry for hydrocarbon exploration? Also recommend me books related to this topic.
Thanks for sending me your question.
Seismic stratigraphy basically provides help to understand lithofacies and depositional setting of the reservoir, source and seal rock which in turn assist oil exploration geologists to determine where the best part of the reservoir develops within their prospect.
If you already know that in your area of exploration seal and source have been established so the only determinant is the reservoir, a reservoir that should have best porosity and permeability potential for higher volumetric trapping for hydrocarbon. Seismic stratigraphy primarily shows the subsurface pattern of sediments deformation and style of deposition as we can visualize in nature. Some prominent stratal patterns are truncation, pinchouts, lap out and erosion.
Erosional features are key in sequence stratigraphy framework that depicts geological events of non deposition and erosion which may be associated with uplifting or change in the eustatic sea level. Most outstanding stratal patterns are formed in deltaic settings which shows various episodes of delta.
As we know about lithofacies variations in various parts of the deltaic settings; as near the source of sediments are considered more sand rich than those sediments deposited farther down the shelf and in nearer sediments in turn could have been more useful for good quality reservoir while the deeper deposits may be more mud or shale dominated and could be good for source rock and seal rocks.
Keep in mind that seismic stratigraphy should be useful if basin has sand and shale or shale, sand and limestone deposition settings in alteration as the seismic data can be excellent if acoustic impedance change in relatively shorter geological time due to alteration of sand and shale lithofacies. On the contrary, if basin has rapid sedimentation history and mainly composed of sand only or shale only then seismic data would not display sharp amplitudes which would be difficult to interpret.
In last I am sharing a list of related articles which may be useful for your study to know more about the subject.
Hope, this answer will help you.