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Question
I have a history project coming up on Spartans and I would like these phrases translated in Ancient Greek would be so much help
Thanks!

1. Never back down
2. Fear nothing
3. Never give up
4. Without valor, freedom dies

Answer
Hello,

Here are the translations you asked me:

1. Never back down = Mήποθ’ὑποχώρει

2. Fear nothing = Oὐδὲν  φοβοῦ

3. Never give up = Mήποθ’ὕπεικε   

4. Without valour, freedom dies = Ἄνευ τῆς ἀρετῆς, ἡ ἐλευθερία  θνήσκει  as well as  Ἄνευ  τᾶς ἀρετᾶς, ἡ ἐλευθερία  θνήσκει

Please note that all the imperative moods in “Never back down”, “Fear nothing” and “Never give up” are in the 2nd person singular  as addressed to only one person, not to more than only one person.

In ancient Greek, in fact, the imperative changes, according to whether  it is in the 2nd person singular or in the 2nd person plural, differently from English which uses the same form (for example, “Never back down”, “Fear nothing” and “Never give up”) when addressing to only one person or to more than only one person.

Best regards,

Maria
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Note that:

-Never = Mήποθ’ (negative form)
-back down =ὑποχώρει (2nd person singular, imperative active  of the contracted verb ὑποχωρέω)

-Fear = φοβοῦ (2nd person singular, imperative of  the middle-passive verb φοβέομαι)
-nothing = Oὐδὲν   (direct object, accusative neuter of  the pronoun οὐδείς)


-Never = Mήποθ’
-give up =  ὕπεικε   (2nd person singular, imperative active  of  ὑπείκω)


-Without = Ἄνευ (preposition which takes the genitive)
-valour = τῆς ἀρετῆς (genitive singular of  ἀρετή, 1st declension)
-freedom = ἡ ἐλευθερία  (nominative case, 1st declension)
-dies = θνήσκει (3rd person singular, present indicative of θνήσκω)

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Maria

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I'll be glad to answer any questions concerning ANCIENT GREEK. So, do not ask me please questions regarding MODERN GREEK as it is different from Ancient Greek either in spelling/meaning or in pronunciation.

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Over 25 years teaching experience.

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I received my Ph.D in Classics (summa cum laude) from Genova University (Italy) and my thesis was about ancient Greek drama (Aeschylus).

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