Human Resources/Perception

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Question
What is the importance of perception in organizational behavior?

Answer
NIVED,
HERE  IS SOME  USEFUL MATERIAL.
REGARDS
LEO LINGHAM
============================================
WHAT  IS
ORGANIZATIONAL  BEHAVIOR


Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives.

As you can see from the definition above, organizational behavior encompasses a wide range of topics, such as human behavior, change, leadership, teams, etc.


Elements of Organizational Behavior

The organization's base rests on management's philosophy, values, vision and goals. This in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment. The culture determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization. The workers perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The final outcome are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development. All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates from.



Models of Organizational Behavior
There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of:

1.Autocratic - The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal.

2.Custodial - The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is security. The performance result is passive cooperation.

3.Supportive - The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives.

4.Collegial - The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm.

Although there are four separate models, almost no organization operates exclusively in one. There will usually be a predominate one, with one or more areas over-lapping in the other models.

Social Systems, Culture, and Individualization

A social system is a complex set of human relationships interacting in many ways. Within an organization, the social system includes all the people in it and their relationships to each other and to the outside world. The behavior of one member can have an impact, either directly or indirectly, on the behavior of others. Also, the social system does not have boundaries...it exchanges goods, ideas, culture, etc. with the environment around it.

Culture is the conventional behavior of an organization  that encompasses beliefs, customs, knowledge, and practices. It influences human behavior, even though it seldom enters into their conscious thought. People depend on culture as it gives them stability, security, understanding, and the ability to respond to a given situation. This is why people fear change. They fear the system will become unstable, their security will be lost, they will not understand the new process, and they will not know how to respond to the new situations.

Individualization is when employees successfully exert influence on the social system by challenging the culture.
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Human behavior is the collection of BEHAVIORS exhibited by HUMAN BEINGS  and influenced by
-CULTURE,
-ATTITUDE
-EMOTIONS
-VALUES
-ETHICS
-AUTHORITY
-RAPPORT
-HYPNOSIS
-PERSUASION  
-COERCION  and/or
-GENETICS .

Factors affecting human behavior
Genetics
Attitude – It is the degree to which the person has a favourable or unfavourable evaluation of the behaviour in question.
Social Norms – This is the influence of social pressure that is perceived by the individual (normative beliefs) to perform or not perform a certain behaviour.
Perceived Behavioural Control – This is the individual’s belief concerning how easy or difficult performing the behaviour will be.
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HERE  THE  PERCEPTION  PLAYS  A  KEY  PART  IN  THE
ORGANIZATION  BEHAVIOR.

WHAT  IS  PERCEPTION  ?
-is   a  way  of  conceiving  something.
-the  process of  perceiving and the  way of conceiving something.  
-perception is  the process  of  acquiring, interpreting , selecting  and
organizing  sensory  information.
-perception is  the  way,   we   react  for  any  particular  situation.


Why Is It Important?
People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.
The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.
 
Factors That
Influence Perception

• Perceiver
• Situation
• Target

Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others
Basically, the theory suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused.

Determinants:
1. Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different situations.
2. Consensus: response is the same as others to same situation.
3. Consistency: responds in the same way over time.

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VARIOUS  FACTORS  OF PERCEPTION  USED  BY  EMPLOYEES.
VARIOUS  FACTORS  OF PERCEPTION  USED  BY  MANAGERS
TO  PERCEIVE  THE  EMPLOYEES.
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HOW  PERCEPTION  HELPS  EMPLOYEES IN  AN  ORGANIZATION.

-human nature can be very  simple, yet  very  complex  too. An  understanding
and  appreciation  of   this  is  no  pre-requiste  to  effective  employee  perception
in  the workplace  and  therefore  effective management  and  leadership.

-there is   a  known  fact that  without  perception , nothing  can be  done  
in  an  organization  and  for  doing  any  task we  need a  perception
which is  accepted by  all the  employees  in an organization. It  is the  key
for  the  manager  to  make  her  team work and  get   the  better  output
for  the  organization.

-perception  helps  each  and  every  individual in  the  organization  to
carry  the  things  in  different  ways as  the  organization  needs
different  perceptions to  make  sucessful  results.
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IMPORTANCE  OF PERCEPTION
-if  the  manager has  good  perception in  any department  of
the  organization, the  department  team  will  have   SAFE  SOLUTIONS
with   RISKY IDEAS.
-to  find  innovative  solutions for  the  problem.
-to  leverage  creativity  and  motivate the  higher plateau  of  thinking.
-with  the help  of  perception,  habits  and  attitudes will  get  changed.
-with  the  help  of perception,  we can  find solutions  the  most
difficult  problems.
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PERCEPTION  PLAYS  BOTH  POSITIVE /  NEGATIVE    PART  
IN  MANY  ASPECTS  OF  THE  ORGANIZATION.

*Employment Interview

-Perception  can  help  the manager  to
recruit   the best  fit.
– Perceptual biases can  affect the accuracy of
interviewers’ judgments of applicants.
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*Performance Expectations

-Perception  can help  the manager  to make
the most  effective  judgement  on  the  expectation.

– Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The
lower or higher performance of employees
reflects preconceived leader expectations about
employee capabilities.
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*Performance Evaluations
-Perception  can help  the manager  to make
the most  effective  performance  appraisal
of  the  employee.

– Appraisals can  be subjective perceptions of
performance.
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*Employee Effort

-Perception  can  help  the  manager  to  make
the  right  judgement  of  the employee's   effort.

– Assessment of individual effort is a subjective
judgment subject to perceptual distortion and
bias.

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Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others
Selective perception
Halo effect
Contrast effects
Projection
Stereotyping  
Specific Applications of Shortcuts in Organization
Employment Interview
Perceptual biases affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of applicants.
Performance Expectations
Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities.
Performance Evaluations
Appraisals are subjective perceptions of performance.
Employee Effort
Assessment of individual effort is a subjective judgment subject to perceptual distortion and bias.
Employee Loyalty
Employee support towards the organization.
Whistle-Blowers
Individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to outsiders.
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Leo Lingham

Expertise

human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.

Experience

18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development

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24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
business coaching, etc

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Principal---BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd

Education/Credentials
MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

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