B. In being fair & ethical, what should H.R managers do in selection & appraisal functions?
This section of the guidelines deals with the following issues:
overview of HR’s role in the entire recruitment process
regional stations’ capability for recruitment
provision of pre-interview briefing material
special considerations for expatriate recruitments
enhancing future practice
1 HR has an important role in facilitating the entire recruitment process, particularly:
a) facilitating the pre-recruitment review – providing advice on whether any existing staff should be considered for filling the new staffing need and, if so, what process should be used to consider her/him/them; or providing advice on whether the new staffing need should/could be used to provide employment for an expatriate spouse and, if so, whom;
b) providing expert advice and guidance in the early stages of the recruitment – particularly with defining the position, drafting the position announcement, identifying and advising on suitable channels for announcement, arranging for the announcement to be placed through the agreed channels, and advising on selection committee composition and related arrangements;
c) functioning as an expert advisor to the selection committee throughout the entire selection process – particularly with briefing committee members on interview techniques, and providing expert advice in the screening, short-listing, and interviewing stages;
d) ensuring that short-listed candidates have briefing materials – providing materials, prior to the interview, about the Center, employment conditions and, when appropriate, lifestyle issues, and ensuring that all their questions on these issues are resolved after the interview; and
e) ensuring that all post-interview procedures are managed effectively – including those that affect the appointee’s transition into her/his new role, workplace and duty station, and those that will sustain unsuccessful candidates’ interest in employment at the Center.
2 HR can add value to the selection process by using experience of other recruitments, providing interview training, and looking at perceptions of the needs of the organization and or department (from the perspective of someone outside the department or program).
The following actions should be taken by HR in the recruitment process.
• Discuss comprehensive competency requirements with the supervisor during the preliminary defining of the vacant position.
• Brief the selection committee on the Center’s diversity-positive recruitment policy and its ramifications, coach committee members on the “dos and don’ts” of interviewing.
• Alert selection committee members if they see behaviors or proposed steps that could introduce bias into the selection process.
• Ensure the interview process is consistent for all interviewees.
• Ensure the committee remains focused on the agreed selection criteria and does not explore factors that are irrelevant for job performance and could lead to bias in relation to gender and/or diversity issues.
Special considerations for expatriate recruitments
• Briefing packages for expatriates should include comprehensive information about issues affecting lifestyle at the duty station including such areas as the Center’s provisions for housing, education and spousal employment together with information about local amenities, support services, cost of living, transportation, security, etc.
Special considerations for national, non-local recruitments
• When a short-listed candidate for a national recruitment would, if successful, have to transfer a significant distance from her/his current location, consideration should be given to offering a briefing package with information about the Center’s provision for housing, education, local amenities, support services, cost of living, transportation, security, etc.
• Ensure that appropriate time (and personnel) are allocated to ensure candidates’ personal issues are dealt with to the necessary degree of detail.
• Ensure that personalized, considerate letters are sent that will sustain the candidates’ interest in future vacancies at the Center.
• Ensure that unsuccessful candidates from CGIAR Centers receive appropriate feedback.
Human is the most important resource to an organization. Issues associated with human resources occur as a result of employees working together. Thesei ssues are by far the largest category of ethical dilemmas in business.
Recruitment or hiring process is the first step in selecting human resource into an organization, and will significantly influence the successful performance of the organization.
Ethics plays a very important role during the recruitment of new employees. Law and regulations dictate that we have to be ethical in hiring.
How ever,ethical hiring practice goes beyond them as well.
It has been widely reported by many researchers that ethical hiring practices actually result in better employees being recruited.
It is therefore important that sound ethical rulesare followed when hiring a new employee.
ETHICAL RULES TO BE
FOLLOWED BY ANORGANISATION WHILE RECRUITING
It is of vital importance that candidates are to be selected based on merits.
Applicants are to be hired based purely on merits such acknowledge, skills, and ability in accordance to the needs of the organization.
If a company provides any special considerations, for example affirmative action, where certain groups are given special considerations, these considerations should be well stated in the company's policy statement.
In any case, any preferential treatment should be onethatis legally allowed.
While preferential treatments to certain specific group may be allowed, there should be no discrimination to people from any other group due to race, religion, gender, marital or even pregnancy status.
Consistency and objectivity during the recruitment process are very important.
Criteria, including any changes in the criteria, used for evaluating candidates should be stated and explained to order to avoid unnecessary claim of biasness in the recruitment process.
Objective evaluation results in the best employees being recruited while consistency ensures high morale among employees.
When we recruit new employees, we should tell the applicants about the true state of the organization.
We should not mislead the applicants. In particular, the applicants should be told all pertinent information, including those information that are not publicly known but that will materially affect the new employee's future employment prospect with the organization
We can learn from the case involving PhilMcConkey. Phil McConkey was recruited but he was not aware that the company was in the process of being taken over by another entity. Oneyear after joining the company he lost his job with he new company.
He sued the company for withholding important information from me during the recruitment process.
He won the case and was awarded $10million.
We should never place misleading job advertisement in order to get applications if we are offering a job contract different from what we advertised for.
For instance, if we want to engage independent contractors instead of normal salaried employment.
The reason why we choose to engage independent contractors is that we do not have to be burdened with high salary cost for employees that are not competent, but we are willing to compensate employees according to performance.
We should always state clearly our terms of employment. In any case, we do not want to be accused of any job scam.
We have to be extra careful when we are recruiting employees from organizations that have material dealing with us include our suppliers, customers and competitors. If we are not careful ethical issues very damaging to us can arise.
When we employ somebody from our suppliers, the suppliers may feel that we have unethically poached their good employee. After all, it is through the working relationship we have with the suppliers that we can to know the quality of this employee.
When we employ somebody from our customers we can be accused of returning favor to that person. This rule applies especially when employing a former senior government employee that has an influence on the awards of contracts toan organization like yours.
Also, be careful not to employ former government employees for the purpose of lobbying for contracts from their previous government departments. At least, do not do so within the first two years of theemployee leaving the government service.
It is also not very wise to employ somebody from our competitors because we can beaccused of stealing trade secrets from our competitors. If that employee can pass on his previous employer's secrets unethically, what is there to sop him from passing your trade secrets to others?
The good HR department goes about it differently. While they recognize that performance appraisal needs to be, in some respects, a central organization process, they also recognize that if the process isn't responsive to at least some needs of managers and employees, it will never succeed. So rather than dictating the procedures, forms and minutiae, the smart HR folks create (in consultation with both managers and employees), a skeleton outline of the process. This skeleton outlines the basic components, but leave the details to the managers. So rather than telling managers they much use the twelve page form provided, they simply say that managers must document the performance discussions, and forward them to HR at least annually. See the difference? The shift here is from dictating details to providing a framework and helping people work within that general framework. It's a SUPPORTING function, and not a lead actor.
Everyone benefits (including the HR staff) by backing off and recognizing that one can both support and lead at the same time without dictating. The bottom line is that the more HR dictates and plays enforcer, the less managers and staff feel they need to take responsibility for the functions HR is dictating. The more dictation the more resistance from the rest of the company.
THE ROLE OF HR
TO HELP in Preparation and Planning for Performance Management
Much work is invested, on the front end, to improve a traditional employee appraisal process. In fact, managers can feel as if the new process is too time consuming. Once the foundation of developmental goals is in place, however, time to administer the system decreases. Each of these steps is taken with the participation and cooperation of the employee, for best results.
THE ROLE OF HR
TO GUIDE in Performance Management and Development in the General Work System
Define the purpose of the job,job duties,and responsibilties.
Define performance goals with measurable outcomes.
Define the priority of each job responsibility and goal.
Define performance standards for key components of the job.
Hold interim discussions and provide feedback about employee performance, preferably daily, summarized and discussed, at least, quarterly. (Provide positive and constructive feedback.)
Maintain a record of performance through critical incident reports. (Jot notes about contributions or problems throughout the quarter, in an employee file.)
Provide the opportunity for broader feedback. Using a 360 degree performance feedback system a that incorporates feedback from the employee's peers, customers, and people who may report to him.
Develop and administer a coaching and improvement plan. if the employee is not meeting expectations.
THE ROLE OF HR
IN ORGANIZING Immediate Preparation for the Performance Development Meeting
Schedule the PERFORMANCE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING MEETING and define pre-work with the staff member to develop the PERFORMANCE DEVELOPMENT PLAN.
The staff member reviews personal performance, documents “self-assessment” comments and gathers needed documentation, including 360 degree feedback results, when available.
The supervisor prepares for the PDP meeting by collecting data including work records, reports, and input from others familiar with the staff person’s work.
Both examine how the employee is performing against all criteria, and think about areas for potential development.
Develop a plan for the PDP meeting which includes answers to all questions on the performance development tool with examples, documentation and so on.
The Performance Development Process (PDP) Meeting
Establish a comfortable, private setting and rapport with the staff person.
Discuss and agree upon the objective of the meeting, to create a PERFORMANCE DEVELOPMENT PLAN.
The staff member discusses the achievements and progress he has accomplished during the quarter.
The staff member identifies ways in which he would like to further develop his professional performance, including training, assignments, new challenges and so on.
The supervisor discusses performance for the quarter and suggests ways in which the staff member might further develop his performance.
Add the supervisor's thoughts to the employee's selected areas of development and improvement.
Discuss areas of agreement and disagreement, and reach consensus.
Examine job responsibilities for the coming quarter and in general.
Agree upon standards for performance for the key job responsibilities.
SET GOALS for the quarter.
Discuss how the goals support the accomplishment of the organization's business plan, the department's objectives and so on.
Agree upon a measurement for each goal.
Assuming performance is satisfactory, establish a development plan with the staff person, that helps him grow professionally in ways important to him.
If performance is less than satisfactory, develop a written PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PLAN and SCHEDULE MEETINFS. Remind the employee of the CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PERFORMANCE.
The supervisor and employee discuss employee feedback and constructive suggestions for the supervisor and the department.
Discuss anything else the supervisor or employee would like to discuss, hopefully, maintaining the positive and constructive environment established thus far, during the meeting.
Mutually sign the performance development tool to indicate the discussion has taken place.
End the meeting in a positive and supportive manner. The supervisor expresses confidence that the employee can accomplish the plan and that the supervisor is available for support and assistance.
Set a time-frame for formal follow up, generally quarterly.
Following the Performance Development Process Meeting
Follow up with performance feedback and discussions regularly throughout the quarter. (An employee should never be surprised about the content of feedback at the performance development meeting.)
The supervisor needs to keep commitments relative to the agreed upon development plan, including time needed away from the job, payment for courses, agreed upon work assignments and so on.
The supervisor needs to act upon the feedback from departmental members and let staff members know what has changed, based upon their feedback.
Forward appropriate documentation to the Human Resources office and retain a copy of the plan for easy access and referral.