Human Resources/HRM

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Question
Hi
I am a student and I am given a research base assignment on HR. I selected the topic ‘efficiency in job design’.  Can you please help me which type of Questions should I include in my Questionnaire OR I must be more specific in this topic. Any suggestion?
Regards

Answer
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==========================================



efficiency in job design’
TO   INCREASE  THE  EFFICIENCY  IN  JOB  DESIGN,   A  NUMBER  OF  FACTORS  NEED  TO  BE  CONSIDERED.
-workplace  design
-motivation
-WORK LIFE
ETC
Core Job Characteristics:
•   Skill Variety
•   Task Identity
•   Task significance
•   Autonomy
•   Feedback
Outcomes:
•   Motivation
•   Performance
•   Satisfaction
•   Reduced Absenteeism
•   Turnover
Psychological States:
•   Meaningful
•   Responsibility
•   Knowledge of results
The core job characteristics will enhance employees' job satisfaction and motivation, potentially leading to better outcomes for your business.
Well designed jobs that don't invoke boredom and which increase the job satisfaction of your employees may help you to improve efficiency, productivity and morale within your business. In turn, this could lead to less staff turnover, absenteeism and potentially make your business more profitable.

Job Design
The main purpose of job design (or re-design) is to increase both employee motivation and productivity (Rush, 1971). Increased productivity can manifest itself in various forms. For example, the focus can be that of improving quality and quantity of goods and services, reduce operation costs, and/or reduce turnover and training costs.
On the other hand, increasing employees' motivation can be achieved through increased job satisfaction. To this end, the Two-Hygiene Theory by Herzberg (1971, as cited in Rush) describes two sets of factors, satisfying and dissatisfying, that affect an employee's self-esteem and opportunity for self-actualization in the workplace (See Table 1).

analyzing existing jobs:
Step one: Review the literature and other extant data (training manual, old job descriptions, etc.),
Step two: Ask immediate managers about responsibilities and tasks required to do the job well,
Step three: Ask similar questions to the current employee doing the job,
Step Four: Observe an employee who does the job well,
Step Five: Try to do the job yourself, careful to not attempt jobs that are very dangerous and that are done by employees with prolonged experience, and
Step Six: Write a job description detailing all your findings.
Additional aspects to consider when analyzing and (re)designing a job are the policies, incentives, and feedback that inevitably affect the efficiency and motivation of the employee responsible to the job.
Job design serves to improve performance and motivation. Job-design analysis starts by looking at a job with a broad perspective and swiftly moves toward identifying the specific activities required to do the job. This is done for the purpose of identifying and correcting any deficiencies that affect performance and motivation.
. In order to reduce the negative impact of monotonous jobs, improve the organization of tasks to streamline efficiency, job design concept was introduced. Job design and work organization is the specification of the contents, method and relationships of jobs to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as well as the personal needs of job holders (Accel Team). Job design is about the ways to organize a set of tasks, or an entire job. Some argue that job design improves workers’ motivation and dedication to work. However, at a closer examination, job design can only contribute to the better efficiency within an organization, eliminate some health problems, but will not impact employee morale and enthusiasm at work.
Rearranging activities can help alleviate fatigue and/or boredom according . For example, ergonomically designed workstations will not eliminate all problems for individuals who continuously perform repetitive, monotonous work. Generally, health complaints can be significantly reduced if workers are given a variety of tasks, and some control over their work.
Approaches to job design improvement include job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment and work design. Job enlargement includes more and different tasks. Job enlargement may or may not give employees more responsibility but should increase interest to the work. Job rotation assumes moving employees from one task to another, distributing the group tasks among a number of employees. Job enrichment allows employees to assume more accountability, responsibility, and independence when learning new tasks and allows for greater participation and new opportunities. Work design allows employees to see how the work methods, handling procedures, and work layout are linked together as well as the interaction between machines and people.
Currently companies offer job design consulting services, which cover writing job descriptions, constructing job competencies, determining standards of performance, designing effective reward packages, drawing up employment contracts.). As one can see, the primary role of job design approaches is to speed up the processes and make the most out of every employee’s work. Thus employee morale and motivation are not the primary focus and result of the job design concept application, although they may appear as a side-effect.
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 The way that jobs are designed or structured can have major implications for effective management because of the effects on worker motivation, the performance and job satisfaction of individuals and the overall functioning of the organisation.
Traditionally the criterion for job design was efficiency. The assumption was that effective job design would lower labour costs which in turn would have an effect on the efficiency of the organisation. However, this approach wrongly assumed that an individual's reaction to his work could also be controlled. It has been found by research that people are unhappy in a job if they have no control over its activities. It was also found that work that does not offer variety or challenge does not possess intrinsic meaning. Therefore such work has an undermining effect on motivation and also gives rise to such problems as frustration, absenteeism and increased labour turnover. These symptoms all affect production. A better job design is one with a combination of efficiency and individual satisfaction; the optimal design is one which ensures that while the individual experiences satisfaction, he is at the same time performing effectively towards achieving the organisation's goals.
www.abahe.co.uk 1Arab British Academy for Higher Education www.abahe.co.uk 2
To achieve such a state of affairs it is necessary to know how to deal with individual differences between workers and how different types of workers are affected by different classes of work.
When designing a job it is necessary to take into consideration the fact that all individuals differ in their abilities, needs and goals and also in their reactions within the organisation.
Because of these varying needs and goals, it is in the best interests of an organisation to adopt a strategy which takes account of these individual differences. It has also been found that detailed job descriptions, direct supervision and financial incentives deprive workers of scope to use their personal discretion and initiative.
Job design can influence individuals in three ways:
  
Their activity level may be affected, which influences the motor and cognitive abilities needed to perform well.

It may offer workers incentives to pursue satisfaction of important needs by encouraging a particular type of job behaviour. This permits the development of methods which will allow both individual job satisfaction and the achievement of the goals of the organisation.

It may have a direct impact on the worker's needs and goals and thus offer additional indirect opportunities for need satisfaction and goal achievement, which are important to the individual worker.
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What is "job design"?
Job design refers to the way that a set of tasks, or an entire job, is organized. Job design helps to determine:
•   what tasks are done,
•   how the tasks are done,
•   how many tasks are done, and
•   in what order the tasks are done.
It takes into account all factors which affect the work, and organizes the content and tasks so that the whole job is less likely to be a risk to the employee. Job design involves administrative areas such as:
•   job rotation,
•   job enlargement,
•   task/machine pacing,
•   work breaks, and
•   working hours.
A well designed job will encourage a variety of 'good' body positions, have reasonable strength requirements, require a reasonable amount of mental activity, and help foster feelings of achievement and self-esteem.

How can job design help with the organization of work?
Job design principles can address problems such as:
•   work overload,
•   work underload,
•   repetitiveness,
•   limited control over work,
•   isolation,
•   shiftwork,
•   delays in filling vacant positions,
•   excessive working hours, and
•   limited understanding of the whole job process.
Job design is sometimes considered as a way to help deal with stress in the workplace. See the OSH Answers document Workplace Stress - General for more information.

Is there a difference between job design and workplace design?
Job design and workplace design are often used interchangeably because both contribute to keep the physical requirements of a job reasonable.
Job design refers to administrative changes that can help improve working conditions.
In comparison, workplace design concentrates on dealing with the workstation, the tools, and the body position that all influence the way a person does his or her work. Good workplace design reduces static positions, repetitive motions and awkward body positions. More information on workplace design is available in the Ergonomics - Human Factors section of OSH Answers.

What are features of "good" job design?
Good job design accommodates employees' mental and physical characteristics by paying attention to:
•   muscular energy such as work/rest schedules or pace of work, and
•   mental energy such as boring versus extremely difficult tasks.
Good job design:
•   allows for employee input. Employees should have the option to vary activities according to personal needs, work habits, and the circumstances in the workplace.
•   gives employees a sense of accomplishment.
•   includes training so employees know what tasks to do and how to do them properly.
•   provides good work/rest schedules.
•   allows for an adjustment period for physically demanding jobs.
•   provides feedback to the employees about their performance.
•   minimizes energy expenditure and force requirements.
•   balances static and dynamic work.
Job design is an ongoing process. The goal is to make adjustments as conditions or tasks change within the workplace.

What are common approaches to job design?
Achieving good job design involves administrative practices that determine what the employee does, for how long, where, and when as well as giving the employees choice where ever possible. In job design, you may choose to examine the various tasks of an individual job or the design of a group of jobs.
Approaches to job design include:
Job Enlargement: Job enlargement changes the jobs to include more and/or different tasks. Job enlargement should add interest to the work but may or may not give employees more responsibility.
Job Rotation: Job rotation moves employees from one task to another. It distributes the group tasks among a number of employees.
Job Enrichment: Job enrichment allows employees to assume more responsibility, accountability, and independence when learning new tasks or to allow for greater participation and new opportunities.
Work Design (Job Engineering): Work design allows employees to see how the work methods, layout and handling procedures link together as well as the interaction between people and machines.

What are the overall goals of job design?
Goals can be in many difference areas and include:
Task Variety
To alleviate boredom, avoid both excessive static body positions and repetitive movements. Design jobs to have a variety of tasks that require changes in body position, muscles used, and mental activities.
Two methods are job enlargement and job rotation. For example, if an employee normally assembles parts, the job may be enlarged to include new tasks such as work planning, inspection / quality control, or maintenance. Alternatively, the tasks may include working in the same department, but changing tasks every hour. For example, in a laundry facility employees can rotate between various stations (sorting, washer, dryer, iron, etc) as long as it provides for a change in physical or mental expenditure.
Work Breaks / Rest Breaks
Rest breaks help alleviate the problems of unavoidable repetitive movements or static body positions. More frequent but shorter breaks (sometimes called "micro breaks") are sometimes preferable to fewer long breaks.
During rest breaks, encourage employees to change body position and to exercise. It is important that employees stretch and use different muscle groups. If the employee has been very active, a rest break should include a stationary activity or stretching.
Allowance for an Adjustment Period
When work demands physical effort, have an adjustment period for new employees and for all employees after holidays, layoffs, or illnesses. Allow time to become accustomed to the physical demands of work by gradually "getting in shape." Employees who work in extreme hot or cold conditions also need time to acclimatize.
Provide Training
Training in correct work procedures and equipment operation is needed so that employees understand what is expected of them and how to work safely. Training should be organized, consistent and ongoing. It may occur in a classroom or on the job.
Vary Mental Activities
Tasks should be coordinated so that they are balanced during the day for the individual employee as well as balanced among a group of employees. You may want to allow the employee some degree of choice as to what types of mental tasks they want to do and when. This choice will allow the employee to do tasks when best suited to their 'alertness' patterns during the day. Some people may prefer routine tasks in the morning (such as checklists or filling in forms) and save tasks such as problem solving until the afternoon, or vice versa.

Can I use job design for teams?
Yes. Since most tasks are not done in isolation, job design is very often used for a group of employees. In some cases, teams can be created that have an overall responsibility for larger task or set of tasks. It is up to the team to decide how the job will be accomplished, which individual will do what tasks, and when. In most cases, team members will have many skills which allow them to change jobs from time to time. As with job design for individuals, additional opportunities such as inspection / quality control, maintenance, and related tasks such as ordering supplies are often assigned to the team in addition to their regular tasks.

What steps should I take when carrying out a job design project?
Although there are many ways to carry out job design, the following stages are essential:
Do an assessment of current work practices.
Is job design needed or feasible? Discuss the process with the employees and supervisors involved and be clear about the process, or any changes or training that will be involved.
Do a task analysis.
Examine the job and determine exactly what the tasks are. Consider what equipment and workstation features are important for completing the tasks. Identify problem areas.
Design the job.
Identify the methods for doing the work, work/rest schedules, training requirements, equipment needed and workplace changes. Coordinate the different tasks so each one varies mental activities and body position. Be careful not to under or overload the job.
Implement the new job design gradually.
You may want to start on a small scale or with a pilot project. Train employees in the new procedures and use of equipment. Allow for an adjustment period and time to gain experience with the new job design.
Re-evaluate job design on a continual basis.
Make any necessary adjustments.
You may also want to establish a committee to represent the various groups involved. Job design should involve employees, unions, the health and safety committee and managers during the entire process. Participation of all parties increases communication and understanding.
Be clear that purpose of the job design is to strengthen the operations and its workforce, not to eliminate jobs or sets of skills.

What is an example of a job design checklist?
Job Design    Yes   No
Task variety    Repetitive tasks - are the same muscle groups or mental tasks done over and over?      
  Static positions - are there few or no opportunities to change position?      
  Fast work pace - is there muscle tension and stress?       
Work/RestSchedules   Long work period(s)-- is there potential for fatigue?      
Adjustment Period   Are there allowances for adjustment periods or varying pace ofwork for new/returning employees?      
Training   Have employees had adequate training?      
Mental variety   Is there some variety or ability to choose what to do next?      

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Job Design
Job design is the process of Work arrangement (or rearrangement) aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. Through job design, organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one's work. Job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation, and job simplification are the various techniques used in a job design exercise.
---businessdictionary.com

Although job analysis, as just described, is important for an understanding of existing jobs, organizations also must plan for new jobs and periodically consider whether they should revise existing jobs. When an organization is expanding, supervisors and human resource professionals must help plan for new or growing work units. When an organization is trying to improve quality or efficiency, a review of work units and processes may require a fresh look at how jobs are designed.

These situations call for job design, the process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that a given job requires, or job redesign, a similar process that involves changing an existing job design. To design jobs effectively, a person must thoroughly understand the job itself (through job analysis) and its place in the larger work unit's work flow process (through work flow analysis). Having a detailed knowledge of the tasks performed in the work unit and in the job, a manager then has many alternative ways to design a job. As shown in Figure , the available approaches emphasize different aspects of the job: the mechanics of doing a job efficiently, the job's impact on motivation, the use of safe work practices, and the mental demands of the job.



















Definitions: -

Job design is the process of
a) Deciding the contents of the job.
b) Deciding methods to carry out the job.
c) Deciding the relationship which exists in the organization.
Job analysis helps to develop job design and job design matches the requirements of the job with the human qualities required to do the job.
According to Michael Armstrong, "Job Design is the process of deciding on the contents of a job in terms of its duties and responsibilities, on the methods to be used in carrying out the job, in terms of techniques, systems and procedures, and on the relationships that should exist between the job holder and his superior subordinates and colleagues."
Job analysis helps to develop job design and job design matches the requirements of the job with the human qualities required to do the job.
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Nature of Job Design

Identifying the components of a given job is an integral part of job design. Designing or redesigning jobs encompasses many factors, and a number of different techniques are available to the manager. Job design has been equated with job enrichment, a technique developed by Frederick Herzberg, but job design is much broader than job enrichment alone.

Designing Efficient Jobs

If workers perform tasks as efficiently as possible, not only does the organization benefit from lower costs and greater output per worker, but workers should be less fatigued. This point of view has for years formed the basis of classical industrial engineering, which looks for the simplest way to structure work in order to maximize efficiency. Typically, applying industrial engineering to a job reduces the complexity of the work, making it so simple that almost anyone can be trained quickly and easily to perform the job. Such jobs tend to be highly specialized and repetitive.

In practice, the scientific method traditionally seeks the "one best way" to perform a job by performing time-and-motion studies to identify the most efficient movements for workers to make. Once the engineers have identified the most efficient sequence of motions, the organization should select workers based on their ability to do the job, then train them in the details of the "one best way" to perform that job. The company also should offer pay structured to motivate workers to do their best.

Despite the logical benefits of industrial engineering, a focus on efficiency alone can create jobs that are so simple and repetitive that workers get bored. Workers performing these jobs may feel their work is meaningless. Hence, most organizations combine industrial engineering with other approaches to job design.


Designing Jobs That Motivate

Especially when organizations have to compete for employees, depend on skilled knowledge workers, or need a workforce that cares about customer satisfaction, a pure focus on efficiency will not achieve human resource objectives. These organizations need jobs that employees find interesting and satisfying, and job design should take into account factors that make jobs motivating to employees.

The quest for meaningful work draws people to such career paths as teaching and public service. For example, when Patrick Bernhardt was laid off from his job as a marketing executive, he seized on the chance to switch fields. Bernhardt became a computer science teacher and enrolled in evening classes. When he switched to this job, Bernhardt took a 50 percent pay cut, but he doesn't mind: "This is the hardest thing I've ever done, but the sense of satisfaction makes it worth it."
Facts [+]
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A recent Money Magazine and Salary.com survey of 26,000 workers found that workers who considered themselves extremely satisfied with their jobs were putting in a lot more time at work than others. The most satisfied group in the survey reported eleven more weekly work hours than the least satisfied group. Generally, as satisfaction rose, workers reported longer hours worked.
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A job satisfaction study compiled by CareerJournal.com asked satisfied workers to describe their jobs. The study found that highly satisfied employees consistently listed four factors: intellectual stimulation, job security, high levels of control and autonomy, and direct contact with clients and customers.
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A model that shows how to make jobs more motivating is the Job Characteristics Model, developed by Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham. This model describes jobs in terms of five characteristics:
1.   Skill variety. The extent to which a job requires a variety of skills to carry out the tasks involved.
2.   Task identity. The degree to which a job requires completing a "whole" piece of work from beginning to end (e.g., building an entire component or resolving a customer's complaint).
3.   Task significance. The extent to which the job has an important impact on the lives of other people.
4.   Autonomy. The degree to which the job allows an individual to make decisions about the way the work will be carried out.
5.   Feedback. The extent to which a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself.
As shown in Figure , the more of each of these characteristics a job has, the more motivating the job will be, according to the Job Characteristics Model. The model predicts that a person with such a job will be more satisfied and will produce more and better work. This approach to designing jobs includes such techniques as job enlargement, job enrichment, self-managing work teams, flexible work schedules, and telework.


Reference : HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Sandra L. Steeh University of Regina Raymond A. Nog Ohio State University John R. Hollenbeck Michigan State University Barry Gerhart University of Wisconsin-Madison Patrick M. Wright Cornel/ University


Facts [+]


Companies introducing creative concepts in naming key roles
2012:Corporate India is tossing out the old, stodgy nomenclature in favour of creative, personalised designations. At Bangalore-based start up Teleradiology Solutions, the CEO is called the 'chief pusher', quite simply because he pushes and nudges employees into delivering the goods.

The organisation also has a chief listening officer (HR head) and chief enabler (technology head). "It creates an environment where designations do not matter," says chief dreamer, Sunita Maheshwari.

Companies like Aegis want to prevent any dilution of ethics. Three months ago, they created the post of a 'chief ethics officer', whose job is to keep a check on any kind of fraudulent behaviour.
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Theories of job design

The basis for job design theory is organization theory, which can be classified broadly into three strains of thought: the classical, the behavioral, and the situational.

Classical theory was expounded in early writings of Max Weber and Henri Fayol. For the classicist, any organization achieves efficiency through its division of labor. Managers identify the overall purpose of the organization. They then divide this overall purpose into jobs, each rationally related to the whole. Jobs are, in turn, grouped to create work groups, divisions, and departments. Finally, each group is assigned a supervisor, who is responsible for overseeing the work of subordinates and reporting the results to his or her own superior.

Behavioral theory is quite different. Unlike the classicist, the behavioralist is much less interested in allocating specific tasks to specific jobs, making sure that the authority matches the position, and then trying to attain higher efficiency through specialization of labor. Behavioralists prefer simple organizational structure, decentralized decision-making, and informal departmentalization. In an organic structure, subordinates feel free to discuss their performance problems with superiors and have a positive view of the organization. They participate in decision-making and communicate with those whose views are needed to solve immediate problems. These characteristics are in stark contrast to conditions in a traditional organization, where subordinates are guarded and negative about the organization, do not feel sufficient trust to communicate openly with those of higher status, and are not permitted to participate in decision-making.

Situational theory differs from both classical and behavioral theories. Advocates stress the influence of the external environment on the allocation of responsibilities and tasks within the organization, work groups, and jobs. Allocating responsibilities and tasks means creating a structure. Appropriate structures differ according to technology, markets, production, research, and information.
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Techniques Of Job Design

There are various Techniques /methods in which job design can be carried out. These methods help to analysis the job, to design the contents of the and to decide how the job must be carried out these methods are as follows
Job Design
•   Job design
Methods or Techniques of Job Design
o   Job Rotation
o   Job Enrichment
o   Job Enlargement











An organization’s performance largely depends upon the HRM practices of which one of the major components is the job design practices. Organizations like Imation, Xerox, etc, motivate their employees by designing challenging and interesting jobs. Job designing is the process of assigning tasks to a particular job by equally considering the interdependency of those tasks with the other jobs. Job design practices can influence the work motivation and the performance of the employees by increasing the work efficiency through job specialization. These practices have evolved and are in a state of constant change due to the changes in the business environment, increased role of information technology, workforce flexibility and technological changes.
The Job Characteristics Model suggests a framework of how effective job design practices can lead to improved work motivation and satisfaction of employees thereby leading to improved organizational performance.   

Source: Work Redesign by J.R. Hackman and G.Oldham
According to the job characteristics model, employees will remain motivated and satisfied if the jobs satisfy the following characteristics:
1.   Skill Variety: Refers to the extent to which the employees use different skills and talents for performing different tasks for fulfilling the requirements of a job.
2.   Task Identity: Refers to the extent to which a job can be completed as a whole or can be completed in identifiable piece of work.
3.   Task Significance: Refers to the degree to which a job has an impact on the organization or on the society.
4.   Autonomy: Jobs having a high degree of autonomy offer tremendous freedom in fulfilling the task requirements.
5.   Job Feedback: Refers to the extent to which the employees provide a feedback about how well are they performing their jobs based on their experiences in the job.
Job design need not necessarily increase the work motivation of the employees as it is affected by the individual differences. Factors such as employee competence, their satisfaction with their work environment and their growth needs influence the motivation level of the employees.
Job design strategies which improve work motivation:
1.   Job Rotation: It is a form of job design practice in which the employees are moved from one job to another. Job rotation helps in reducing job boredom and help in developing a flexible workforce. Job rotation creates multi skilled employees.
2.   Job Enlargement: It is about increasing the number of tasks in a job for an employee. It helps in improving work efficiency and flexibility.
3.   Job Enrichment: It occurs when the employees are entrusted with additional responsibilities for scheduling, coordinating and planning their own work.
4.   Alternative Work Schedule options: Designing work schedule according to the convenience of the employees so that they can balance their work time and personal time. These may be in the form of:
   Compressed work weeks: This implies reducing the number of working days by keeping the number of hours of work the same.
   Shorter workweek: This means reducing the working hours per week, say from 40 hours to 35 hours.
   Flexitime: Allowing employees with flexible scheduling options wherein they decide their arrival and departure time from their organization.
   Telecommuting: Allows the employee to perform their jobs through computers which is linked with their offices.
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Job Analysis Questionnaire

TO BE COMPLETED BY EMPLOYEE

1. YOUR NAME:_________________________________WORK PHONE NUMBER: ___________
(Last, First, Middle Initial)

2. OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATION TITLE OF YOUR POSITION: ______________________________

3. WORKING TITLE: ______________________________________________________________
(If different than official classification title)

4. TIME IN CURRENT CLASSIFICATION: ______________ (Months)

5. WORK LOCATION:
_____________________________________________________________

6. DEPARTMENT:_________________________________DIVISION:________________

SECTION:__________________________________UNIT:_______________________

7. WEEKLY HOURS: (E.G., 35, 40, 42, 56)___________________
REGULAR DAYS OFF: (DAYS OF WEEK)_________________

8. NAME OF IMMEDIATE SUPERVISOR:
______________________________________________

9. TITLE OF Supervisor’s POSITION:
______________________________________________
(Official Classification Title)

10. NAMES AND CLASSIFICATION TITLES OF OTHER PERSONS TO WHOM YOU REPORT OR FROM WHOM YOU RECEIVE ASSIGNMENTS
_______________________________________

11. JOB SUMMARY STATEMENT: Describe the nature and purpose of your work in one or two sentences.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________




12. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: (Regular and occasional duties must add up to 100%)
List and number the duties you perform regularly in order of frequency. State clearly what you do and how you do it. Group related duties into separate paragraphs or sections. In the space at the left, estimate the amount of time you spend on each group of duties; show time as percentages. For example, if you work 40 hours/week and spend 20 hours on the average performing one set of duties, put 50% under
"Percentage of Time Spent". If a group of duties occurs only during a particular season, please explain,
including the number of weeks involved. (Attach additional pages if necessary)
If you lead or supervise others, check this box 9 and be sure to complete items #32 and #33.
Percentage of REGULAR DUTIES
Time Spent
_______% ________________________________________________________________
_______% ________________________________________________________________
_______% ________________________________________________________________
_______% ________________________________________________________________
_______% ________________________________________________________________
_______% ________________________________________________________________
_______% ________________________________________________________________
_______% ________________________________________________________________
_______% ________________________________________________________________


13. List and number the duties you perform occasionally in order of most importance. Include temporary assignments or special projects. Indicate the percentage of time that is spent on each occasional duty.
Regular and Occasional Duties must add up to 100%
Percentage of OCCASIONAL DUTIES
Time Spent
_______% ______________________________________________________________
_______% ______________________________________________________________
_______% ______________________________________________________________
_______% ______________________________________________________________
_______% ______________________________________________________________
_______% ______________________________________________________________
_______% ______________________________________________________________
_______% ______________________________________________________________
_______% ______________________________________________________________
_______% ______________________________________________________________


14. List any vehicles, machines, hand or power tools, office equipment, software, laboratory instruments etc., used in performing your work. Show the amount of time spent using each of these on a daily,
weekly, or monthly basis (e.g., operate a personnel computer 1 hour every day) or show as a percentage of your work time.
Machine, tools, equipment          No. of hours or % of time
_____________________________          __________________
_____________________________          __________________
_____________________________          __________________
_____________________________          __________________
_____________________________          __________________
_____________________________          __________________

15. List the most important knowledge, skills and abilities you need to perform the duties that you listed in items 12 and 13. Also list any licenses or certificates (e.g., R.N., driver's license, CDL, MS Excel, MS Access) required to perform your work.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

16. For what work do you make recommendations (i.e., your opinion is solicited, but you do not have final authority)? To whom? Please give examples.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

17. For what work do you make the final decision? Please provide examples.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

18. What policies, procedures, laws, rules, standards, or trade practices do you refer to or follow
in performing your work? _______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
19. Do you have any responsibility for deciding what procedures, guidelines, laws, policies, rules, etc., are to be followed in your work or the work of others?
Not usually  ,Sometimes ,Regularly
Please explain:________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

20. What work do you do on your own without checking with your supervisor? (Refers to work identified in items #12 and 13)
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

21. Please provide examples of the kinds of matters you refer to your supervisor.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

22. With whom, or what organizations, do you have regular job related contacts?
INSIDE CITY GOVERNMENT
Titles of persons and/or Name of organization Purpose How Often
(Daily, weekly, etc)
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

OUTSIDE CITY GOVERNMENT
Titles of persons and/or Name of organization Purpose How Often
(Daily, weekly, etc)
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Are your contacts generally:
Friendly and cooperative?
Unfriendly and difficult?
Please explain.
______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________\


23. Indicate the physical effort required in your job. Show how often: daily, 2 to 3 times per week, 1 to 2 times per month, etc.
How Often
- Sitting at a desk or table with some walking, standing, bending or stooping, or
carrying light objects ___________
- Continuous operation of a Personal Computer (PC) for long periods (e.g., over 4 hrs.) ___________
- Rapid use of arms, hands or fingers in handling or manipulating objects, or operating equipment, tools, instruments requiring fine eye-hand coordination
___________
- Repeated bending, crouching, stooping, stretching, or crawling ___________
- Grappling or fighting physically with others ___________
- Unaided lifting of objects up to: 20 pounds: ___________
50 pounds: ___________
100 pounds: ___________
over 100 pounds: ___________
- Support part of the weight of ill or infirm persons while assisting them to walk, or roll
over in bed, or in other ways. ___________
- Climbing ladders or scaffolding ___________
- Other - Please describe ___________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

24. Describe any hazards encountered in your job and how frequently (times per week, month, or year) you are exposed to each.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

25. List any safety equipment (e.g., hard hats, goggles, radiation shields) that you wear or safety precautions that you must follow.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

26. Describe the surroundings in which your work is performed and state the percentage of time spent in
those surroundings (e.g., 90% inside an office, 25% driving a car, 100% on a hospital ward).
% of Time Surroundings in which work is performed
_______% ________________________________________________________
_______% ________________________________________________________
_______% ________________________________________________________
_______% ________________________________________________________

27. Describe any features in your surroundings which would generally be regarded as undesirable
or unpleasant and record how often you are exposed to these undesirable or unpleasant aspects.
______________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

28. Does your work require continuous operation of a vehicle, machine or piece of equipment for
long periods (e.g., over 3 hours at a time)? Please describe the machine or equipment and length
of time you continuously operate it.
_____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

ITEMS 29 & 30
TO BE COMPLETED BY EMPLOYEES WHO
SUPERVISOR OR LEAD OTHER EMPLOYEES
29. Describe your managerial and supervisory duties which involve exercise of supervisory control over the
work of others; e.g., plan and organize the work to be done, determine how the work should be
assigned and make work assignments, review work in progress or on completion to assess the quality
and quantity of work produced, communicate job requirements to employees and evaluate their work
performance, give on-the-job training, and select or participate in selecting new employees.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

30. List the employees whom you lead in the performance of their work; e.g., instructing them on the
correct way to conduct work processes, monitoring work production and/or to whom you provide full
supervision as described in item 29. Do not list employees supervised by your subordinate
supervisors. Include interns, summer employees, students and volunteers if you are responsible for
their work. Exclude contracted employees, inmates, patients, and clients.
Name Official Classification Title
____________________________ _____________________________________
____________________________ _____________________________________
____________________________ _____________________________________
____________________________ _____________________________________
____________________________ _____________________________________
a) Total number led or supervised directly: ______________
b) Total number led or supervised indirectly: ______________
(Those supervised by subordinates)
c) Total number of volunteers supervised: ______________
d) Others (explain): ______________
Total expressed as Full-Time Equivalents: ______________
(2080 hours = 1 FTE)
What percentage of time do you spend managing your department or subdivision thereof and
supervising others? (Double check % of time spent managing and supervising in ITEMS
12 and 13._______%

31. Additional comments (information that will help to explain your job):
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

I hereby certify to the best of my knowledge that the information that I have provided regarding my/the position
is complete and factual, and accurately describes the work.
SIGNATURE:_____________________________________________________Date:______________
PRINTED NAME:____________________________________________________________________



@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Work/Life Preference Checklist
QUESTIONNAIRE

Work/Life Preference

Place a check next to each item on the following checklist that you feel is important to your
satisfaction at work. Circle the five items in each category that are most important to you.

1. Work Environment

Growing/Successful
Ethical
Family oriented
Good Benefits
Pays Well/Fairly
Physically Clean/Safe
Open/Participative
Rewards Risk/Innovation
Access to Recreation
Adequate Parking
Advancement Opportunity
Entrepreneurial
Strong Leadership
Clear Mission
Team Spirit/Morale
Training Available

2. Work  Management

 Caring Management
 Gives Recognition
 Physically Attractive
 Quiet
 Efficient
 Large Organization
  Equal Opportunity
 Time Flexibility
 Faster Pace
 Slower Pace
 Private Office
 Stability
 Gives Feedback
 Child Care
 Shows Respect
 Professional
Dress Code
Resources Available
Other/Comments

3.The Work Itself

Utilizes Abilities
High Visibility
High Structure
Loose Structure
Emphasis on Doing
Emphasis on Managing
Emphasis on Thinking
Emphasis on Quality
Emphasis on Quantity
Involves Travel
No Travel
Meaningful Outcome
Work with People
Work with Data/Ideas
Work with Physical Things
Regular Hours
irregular Hours
Other/Comments
Safety/Security
International
 More Management Contact
 More Contact with Peers
 Theoretical
 Line Job
 Competency Valued
 Precision Required
 Expertise Valued
 Task Variety
 Work Alone
  Work in Groups
 Headquarters Job
 Field/Plant Job
 Generalist Role
 Specialist Role
 Reliability Valued
  Staff Job

4.Results and Rewards of the Work (Motivations)

To advance or be promoted
To gain control or authority
To realize a vision
To achieve measurable results
To make specific
improvements
To master a craft or process
To gain recognition
To gain and impart expertise
To pioneer or discover

 To earn financial payoffs
 To create a product or process
To build an enterprise
 To have an impact
 To be a change agent
 To compete and win
 To achieve distinction
 To exploit hidden
opportunities
 To achieve elite status
 To respond to a challenge
 To meet high expectations
 Other/Comments
To overcome adversity
To contribute to society

5.Lifestyle and Personal Values

 Live an Honest Life
 Have Leisure Time
 Live a Spiritual Life
 Be Financially Secure
 Take Care of Family
 Enjoy Vacations/Travel
 Community Involvement
 Have Respect of Others
 Have Balance and Harmony
  Other/Comments
 Retire Comfortably
 Live in Beautiful Setting
 Have Many Friends
 Be a Good Parent
 Live a Healthy life
 live Where I Want
 Loving Relationship
 Own Material Goods
 Help Less Fortunate

Now list the 25 items you circled, from most to least important:

1.
2.      
3.      
4.
5.      
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

PART  2   FOLLOWS


HERE IS  PART   2


QUESTIONNAIRE   2
General  ''Quality of Worklife'' SURVEY

1
How would you describe your work arrangement in your main job?
1 I work as an independent contractor, independent consultant, or freelance worker
2 I am on-call, and work only when called to work
3 I am paid by a temporary agency
4 I work for a contractor who provides workers and services to others under contract
5 I am a regular, permanent employee (standard work arrangement)

2.
How long have you worked in your present job for your current employer?
1 LESS THAN 6 MONTHS
2 6-12 MONTHS
3 ENTER YEARS

3
In your main job, are you salaried, paid by the hour, or what?
1 Salaried
2 Paid by the hour
3 Other (SPECIFY)

4
Which of the following best describes your usual work schedule?
1 Day shift
2 Afternoon shift
3 Night shift
4 Split shift
5 Irregular shift/on-call
6 Rotating shifts

5
How many days per month do you work extra hours beyond your usual schedule? ___

6
When you work extra hours on your main job, is it mandatory (required
by your employer)?
1 YES
2 NO

7
How often are you allowed to change your starting and quitting times on a daily basis?
1 Often
2 Sometimes
3 Rarely
4 Never

8
How often do you work at home as part of your job?
1 Never
2 A few times a year
3 About once a month
4 About once a week
5 More than once a week
6 Worker works mainly at home

9 (This question applies only to people who indicate that they work at home as part of their job.)
Is it usually because you want to, you have to in order to keep up with your job, or for some other reason?
1 Worker wants to work at home
2 Worker has to work at home to keep up with job
3 Other combinations and other reasons

10
How hard is it to take time off during your work to take care of personal or family matters?
1 Not at all hard
2 Not too hard
3 Somewhat hard
4 Very hard

11
How often do the demands of your job interfere with your family life?
1 Often
2 Sometimes
3 Rarely
4 Never

12
How often do the demands of your family interfere with your work on the job?
1 Often
2 Sometimes
3 Rarely
4 Never

13
After an average work day, about how many hours do you have to relax or pursue activities that you enjoy? __

14
Do you have any jobs besides your main job or do any other work for pay?
1 YES
2 NO

15
Now I'm going to read you a list of statements that might or might not
describe your main job. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree,
disagree, or strongly disagree with each of these statements.
My job requires that I keep learning new things
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

16
My job requires that I work very fast
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

17
I get to do a number of different things on my job
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

18
I have a lot of say about what happens on my job
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

19
My main satisfaction in life comes from my work
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

20
I have too much work to do everything well
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

21
On my job, I know exactly what is expected of me
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

22
My job lets me use my skills and abilities
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

23
At the place where I work, I am treated with respect
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

24
I trust the management at the place where I work
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

25
The safety of workers is a high priority with management where I work
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

26
There are no significant compromises or shortcuts taken when worker safety is at stake
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

27
Where I work, employees and management work together to ensure the safest possible working conditions
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

28
The safety and health conditions where I work are good
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

29
I am proud to be working for my employer
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

30
Conditions on my job allow me to be about as productive as I could be
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

31
The place where I work is run in a smooth and effective manner
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

32
Workers need strong trade unions to protect their interests
1 Strongly Agree
2 Agree
3 Disagree
4 Strongly Disagree

33
In your job, do you normally work as part of a team, or do you work mostly on your own?
1 Yes, I work as part of a team
2 No, I work mostly on my own

34
In your job, how often do you take part with others in making decisions that affect you?
1 Often
2 Sometimes
3 Rarely
4 Never

35
How often do you participate with others in helping set the way things are done on your job?
1 Often
2 Sometimes
3 Rarely
4 Never

36
How often are there not enough people or staff to get all the work done?
1 Often
2 Sometimes
3 Rarely
4 Never

37
Now I'm going to read you another list of statements about your main job. For each, please tell me if the statement is very true, somewhat true, not too true, or not at all true with respect to the work you do.
The chances for promotion are good
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

38
I have an opportunity to develop my own special abilities
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

39
I receive enough help and equipment to get the job done
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

40
I have enough information to get the job done
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true






PART   3

41
I am given a lot of freedom to decide how to do my own work
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

42
My fringe benefits are good
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

43
My supervisor is concerned about the welfare of those under him or her
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

44
I am free from the conflicting demands that other people make of me
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

45
Promotions are handled fairly
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

46
The people I work with take a personal interest in me
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

47
The job security is good
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

48
My supervisor is helpful to me in getting the job done
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

49
I have enough time to get the job done
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

50
The people I work with can be relied on when I need help
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

51
I have the training opportunities I need to perform my job safely and competently
1 Very true
2 Somewhat true
3 Not too true
4 Not at all true

52
In general, how would you describe relations in your work place between management and employees?
1 Very good
2 Quite good
3 Neither good nor bad
4 Quite bad
5 Very bad

53
Does your job require you to do repeated lifting, pushing, pulling or bending?
1 YES
2 NO

54
Does your job regularly require you to perform repetitive or forceful hand
movements or involve awkward postures?
1 YES
2 NO

55
When you do your job well, are you likely to be praised by your supervisor or employer?
1 Yes
2 Maybe
3 No

56
When you do your job well, are you likely to get a bonus or pay increase?
1 Yes
2 Maybe
3 No

57
How fair is what you earn on your job in comparison to others doing the same type of work you do?
1 Much less than you deserve
2 Somewhat less than you deserve
3 About as much as you deserve
4 Somewhat more than you deserve
5 Much more than you deserve

58
Do you feel that the income from your job alone is enough to meet your
family's usual monthly expenses and bills?
1 YES
2 NO

59
Were you laid off your main job at any time in the last year?
1 YES
2 NO

60
How easy would it be for you to find a job with another employer with
approximately the same income and fringe benefits as you have now?
1 Very easy to find similar job
2 Somewhat easy to find similar job
3 Not easy at all to find similar job

61
Taking everything into consideration, how likely is it you will make
a genuine effort to find a new job with another employer within the next year
1 Very likely
2 Somewhat likely
3 Not at all likely

62
Do you feel in any way discriminated against on your job because of your age?
1 YES
2 NO

63
Do you feel in any way discriminated against on your job because of your race or ethnic origin?
1 YES
2 NO

64
Do you feel in any way discriminated against on your job because of your gender?
1 YES
2 NO

65
In the last 12 months, were you sexually harassed by anyone while you were on the job?
1 YES
2 NO

66
In the last 12 months, were you threatened or harassed in any other way by anyone while you were on the job?
1 YES
2 NO

67
Would you say that in general your health is Excellent, Very good, Good, Fair, or Poor?
1 Excellent
2 Very good
3 Good
4 Fair
5 Poor

68
Now thinking about your physical health, which includes physical illness
and injury, for how many days during the past 30 days was your physical
health not good? __

69
Now thinking about your mental health, which includes stress, depression,
and problems with emotions, for how many days during the past 30 days was
your mental health not good. __

70
During the past 30 days, for about how many days did your poor physical
or mental health keep you from doing your usual activities, such as self-care, work, or recreation? __

71
How often do you find your work stressful?
1 Always
2 Often
3 Sometimes
4 Hardly ever
5 Never

72
How often during the past month have you felt used up at the end of the day?
1 Very often
2 Often
3 Sometimes
4 Rarely
5 Never

73
In the past 12 months, have you had back pain every day for a week or more?
1 YES
2 NO

74
In the past 12 months, have you had pain in the hands, wrists, arms,
or shoulders every day for a week or more?
1 YES
2 NO

75
In the past 12 months, how many times have you been injured on the job? __

76
All in all, how satisfied would you say you are with your job?
1 Very satisfied
2 Somewhat satisfied
3 Not too satisfied
4 Not at all satisfied


###############################################################

Human Resources

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Leo Lingham

Expertise

human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.

Experience

18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development

PLUS

24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
business coaching, etc

Organizations
Principal---BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd

Education/Credentials
MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

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