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Question
A.What are same of the cause of multiplicity of unions in India & what could be done to manage it?

Answer
Reasons for Workers to Join Trade Uniorr
Workers join unions because they are constrained by circumstances to do
so, and because they want.
1 . To get economic security through steady employment and adequate income.
2. To restrain the management from taking any action which is irrational,
~llogical. discriminatory or prejudicial to the interests of labour. Workers desire that the assignment of jobs, transfers, promotions, maintenance of discipline, lay off, retirement, rewards and punishment should be on the basis
of a pre-determined policy and on the basis of what is fair and just.
3. For better communication of their news, aims, ideas, feelings and frustrations to the management and to have an effective voice in discussion about their welfare.
4. To secure protection from economic hazards beyond their control for
example, illness, accident, death, disability, unemployment and old age.
5. To get along wlth their fellow workers in a better way and to gain respect in the eyes of their peers.
6. To get a job through the good offices of a trade union

Trade unions evolved to protect workers' rights against management's atrocities in the modern industry. They raised a collective voice for the improvement of workers' wages, working conditions, and their social welfare. Basically, workers joined trade unions to protect their economic, social and political interests and to satisfy their need for belongingness.

Trade unions have been classified either on the basis of purpose or on the basis of membership structure. Reformist and revolutionary unions are formed on the basis of purpose. Reformist unions are further classified into business and uplift unions. On the other hand, revolutionary unions are further classified into political, anarchist, and predatory unions.

Predatory unions can be either hold-up or guerilla unions. Craft unions, industrial unions, and general unions are based on membership structure. Over the years, the power of unionism has weakened due to a shift in the nature of workforce among other factors. Trade unions in India have always been plagued by multiple unionism, inter-union rivalry, political interference, financial weakness and uneven growth of unionism.

With the advent of globalization and privatization, these unions fear that their importance and power will decline. The survival of these unions largely depends on their adaptability and improvement in their functioning. Their future success depends on their ability to develop healthy relations with employers and the government by redesigning their objectives, roles and strategies.
Problems of Indian Trade Unions:
Uneven growth:
Industry-wise and Area-wise: Trade unions haven't grown in all types of industries. The only industries that have seen growth of trade unions are in the area of plantations, coal mines, food, textiles, printing press, chemicals, utility services, transport, communications and commerce. Furthermore, trade union activities are limited to large scale industry sector and manual labour, and trade unions are unevenly distributed in different states. Trade unions don't exist for a variety of small-scale businesses.
Small size of unions:
The sizes of trade unions haven't been sufficient enough to have adequate funds and provide legal help to members. The sizes of trade unions in India have been increasing since 1930-31, but the overall membership size has been decreasing recently. Various factors contribute toward the small size of trade unions; the average size of a trade union in India is about 800. Furthermore, the percentage of women members is only 6-8%. This small size of trade unions weakens their collective bargaining power, and makes legal help inaccessible.
Financial Weakness:
Workers don't adequately contribute toward to their trade union membership fees, except when necessary. Many workers feel the services of their trade unions are not worth paying for. The lack of necessary funds prevent trade unions from offering support for welfare activities for labour, support strikes, and hire paid staff. One reason for financial weakness in trade unions is due to the presence of rival trade unions.
Multiplicity of Trade Unions and rivalries:
Multiple trade unions are a necessary evil. Powerful political parties have established their own trade unions with the intention of spreading their political power. This causes an inadequate and unhealthy growth of trade unions. Most trade unions have developed inter-union rivalries and groups that are in constant competition against each other. Members' energy has been wasted on deconstructive activities, and unions have become more political.
Leadership issues:
Some unions are managed by the educated class: doctors, lawyers, politicians, etc., who have no experience or work history with the corresponding union. This type of foreign leadership creates barriers between lower-end workers and upper management, and is disadvantageous to the proper development and management of the union. Leadership of a union must only arise from within the labour class.
Political involvement in unions:
Most unions today are run by rival political parties. These political parties have nothing constructive to offer, instead, use unions to spread their political agenda. Furthermore, decisions related to unions are made by politicians. For example, the Indian National Congress as formed the Swadeshi Movement, the Khilafat Movement, the Civil Disobedience Movement, and the Noncorporation movement.
Problems with recognition of trade unions:
The process that leads to recognition of unions is a lengthy one. In the initial stages, union recognition is very difficult, and even discourage. There is a long list of criteria that a union must meet in order to become certified and recognized by the industry.







what could be done to manage it?
PROVIDE   ASSISTANCE   WITH  THE  
Essentials FOR  a Successful Trade Union

l . Should have a social foundation, so that it may be strong enough to achieve
success in the realisation of its objectives.
2. Should have clearly enumerated objectives and a coherent and well conceived
policy, and it should consider itself a business organisation which requires
careful planning and sound organisational methods for its success.
3. Should be an enlightened one, so that it may be able to guide and direct the
Trade Union movement properly. This presupposes the existence of correct
and effective leadership which should come from the rank and file of its
members and subject to their support or rejection. The union should be run
"by the members for the members".
4. Should have honesty and integrity of purposes not only in financial matters
but to its relationship with employer, to the formulation of its polices and
evaluation of its performances.
5. Should have a sense of responsibility
a) to be internally strong that it may be effective in protecting the
interests of workers.
b) to me its economic power in a careful and responsible way
c) to be democratic so that the worker's right to self government
becomes a reality.


Advantages and Disadvantages of Trade Unions
A strong trade union gives a guarantee of industrial peace and brings stability in the industry.
Trade unions briny about improvement in the conditions of work,
employment and wages of workers and lead to greater efficiency among labourers.
'They also inculcate a feeling of self respect and confidence among the Workers
Trade unions are organisations of workers that seek through collective bargaining with employers to:
•   Protect and improve the real incomes of their members
•   Provide or improve job security
•   Protect workers against unfair dismissal and other issues relating to employment legislation
•   Lobby for better working conditions
•   Offer a range of other work-related services including support for people claiming compensation for injuries sustained in a job
Individual trade unions have historically been associated with specific industries, trades and professions. Examples of trade unions which are still active include:
The two main functions of a trade union are to represent their members and to negotiate with employers. The basic concept behind a trade union is that of increased bargaining and negotiation power which comes from acting together.
Not surprisingly, trade unions often refer to a traditional rallying call – “unity is strength”.
The traditional view of the employer/trade union relationship has been one of confrontation. However, in most cases employers and union representatives have a constructive relationship. Indeed, it is possible to identify several advantages of unionisation from the employers’ point of view:
•   Negotiating with trade unions (ideally a single union) saves time and cost rather than dealing with all employees individually
•   Unions are part of the communication process between the business and employees
•   Employee morale and motivation may be improved if they know that their interests are being protected by a union
•   The trade union can be a supportive partner in helping a business undergo significant change
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