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Question
MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION

1.   Mobile communication is the best example for paperless communication. Identify some unexplored areas where it can be effectively used. Also compare its effectiveness with other forms of communication.

2.   The President of the company has asked for a study of the employee's attitude over company's personnel policies. Write a research proposal on the specific topic of your choice.   

3.   a) Discuss the models for understanding interpersonal relationship.  
b) List and describe the process variables associated with effective team performance.  

4.   a) "Ineffective communication is the fault of the sender". Do you agree or disagree? - Discuss the above statement in detail in a corporate set up.
b) Define conflict management. Explain the transitions in conflict through organizational structure

Answer
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4. a) "Ineffective communication is the fault of the sender". Do you agree or disagree? - Discuss the above statement in detail in a corporate set up.

I DON’T  AGREE  WITH  THE   STATEMENT.
BOTH  THE  SENDERS/ RECEIVERS  COULD  BE  AT  FAULT.

Noise and Barriers:-
While transmitting the information to the receiver, the sender faces lots of barriers. These
noise and barriers are explained as under:

(i) On sender’s side:- Noise and barriers may take place during the process of encoding.
Some of them may be caused by distraction, lack of concentration, typing mistake, poor
language etc.

(ii)In the medium:- Some barriers are caused by medium such as poor transmission on
T.V. and radio misprinting in newspapers etc.

On receiver’s side:- The receiver can also create certain barriers to the receiving of
message such as poor reading ability, emotions, lack of concentration etc.
Decoding by Receiver:-
Having received the message form the sender, the receiver attempts to understand and
interpret the message. This process of converting the language of message into thoughts is known as
decoding. For instance, the receiver, having received job application, reads the application and
understands the message conveyed by the applicant.
Barriers to Effective Communication
There are a wide number of sources of noise or interference that can enter into the communication process. This can occur when people now each other very well and should understand the sources of error. In a work setting, it is even more common since interactions involve people who not only don't have years of experience with each other, but communication is complicated by the complex and often conflictual relationships that exist at work. In a work setting, the following suggests a number of sources of noise:
1   Language: The choice of words or language in which a sender encodes a message will influence the quality of communication. Because language is a symbolic representation of a phenomenon, room for interpreation and distortion of the meaning exists. In the above example, the Boss uses language (this is the third day you've missed) that is likely to convey far more than objective information. To Terry it conveys indifference to her medical problems. Note that the same words will be interpreted different by each different person. Meaning has to be given to words and many factors affect how an individual will attribute meaning to particular words. It is important to note that no two people will attribute the exact same meaning to the same words.
2   defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, project, transference, distortions from the past
3   misreading of body language, tone and other non-verbal forms of communication (see section below)
4   noisy transmission (unreliable messages, inconsistency)
5   receiver distortion: selective hearing, ignoring non-verbal cues
6   power struggles
7   self-fulfilling assupmtions
8   language-different levels of meaning
9   managers hesitation to be candid
10   assumptions-eg. assuming others see situation same as you, has same feelings as you
11   distrusted source, erroneous translation, value judgment, state of mind of two people
12   Perceptual Biases: People attend to stimuli in the environment in very different ways. We each have shortcuts that we use to organize data. Invariably, these shortcuts introduce some biases into communication. Some of these shortcuts include stereotyping, projection, and self-fulfilling prophecies. Stereotyping is one of the most common. This is when we assume that the other person has certain characteristics based on the group to which they belong without validating that they in fact have these characteristics.
13   Interpersonal Relationships: How we perceive communication is affected by the past experience with the individual. Percpetion is also affected by the organizational relationship two people have. For example, communication from a superior may be perceived differently than that from a subordinate or peer
14   Cultural Differences: Effective communication requires deciphering the basic values, motives, aspirations, and assumptions that operate across geographical lines. Given some dramatic differences across cultures in approaches to such areas as time, space, and privacy, the opportunities for mis-communication while we are in cross-cultural situations are plentiful.
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TO  OVERCOME   BARRIERS   AND   TO  BE EFFECTIVE  COMMUNICATION  IN  BUSINESS
Face-to-face meetings can result in awkward pauses and initial shyness for those who are not brimming with confidence. To help you over this hurdle, you can approach the meeting fully prepared and well armed if you have a look at the following factors.
In order to get your message across, think about what you are trying to achieve during the dialogue:
1   What information do you wish to convey?
2   What do you want the other person to do as a result?
Organise yourself beforehand. Jot down notes about your major points. Be positive and keep the message simple.
Clarity is Paramount for Effective Communication
What is communication? In short, it's signalling. The transmission, by speaking, writing or gestures, of information which evokes understanding.
That's simple enough, isn't it? Straightforward in theory but in practice it's fraught with dangers - particularly if you have high expectations from these important business connections.
Communication is not just speaking, writing or gesticulating. It's more than the transmission of information. Something else has to occur for the communication to be complete. The other party in the communication process has to engage their brain and receive the message.
There are some points to remember when considering the various methods of communication and some hazards to be aware of when dealing with business relationships:
1   Only 7% of the impact you make comes from the words you speak.
2   The rest is visual - your appearance, the sound of your voice and your body language.
3   You can break that 7% further down into sections:
4   the type of words you use
5   the sort of sentences you use
6   how you phrase them.
Voicing Your Thoughts
Pay attention to your voice. Tone, inflection, volume and pitch are all areas to consider. Most people don't need to develop their speaking voice, but there are many who do not understand how to use it effectively.
The simplest way is to compare the voice to a piece of music - it is the voice that is the instrument of
interpretation of the spoken word.
Those who have had some training in public speaking sometimes use mnemonics as memory joggers for optimum vocal effect. One simple example is R S V P P P:
1   Rhythm
2   Speed
3   Voice
4   Pitch
5   Pause
6   Projection.
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Key Techniques  FOR  OVERCOMING   BARRIERS  IN  COMMUNICATION
Focus the discussion on the information needed
Judy, I've noticed in the past month that you've fallen behind on keeping the project schedule current. I'd like to figure out with you what we both can do to get it back on track.

Use open-ended questions to expand the discussion
You've always kept the schedule up to the minute-until about a month ago. Why the change?

Use closed ended questions to prompt for specifics
"What projects are you working on that take time away from your work on this project (warning: closed ended questions are often disguised as open ended as in "Are you going to have trouble finishing this project?)

Encourage dialogue through eye contact and expression
This involves nodding in agreeemnt, smiling, leaning toward the speaker, making statements that acknowledge the speaker is being heard.
State your understanding of what you are hearing
This can be done by restating briefly what the other person is saying but don't make fun of it

"So it sounds like these phone calls have ended up taking a lot more time than you or Jay expected; you think the three of us should talk about priorities; is this your position?"

Summarize the key points;
try to get some agreement on the next steps and show appreciation for the effort made so far. "So let's call Jay right now and set up a time when we can meet and iron this out; keeping the schedule updated is a high priority and I'd like to get this settled by Wednesday.
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THE  BARRIERS  CAN  ALSO BE  OVERCOME  WITH
Characteristics of Effective Feedback
Effective Feedback has most of the following characteristics:
1   descriptive (not evaluative)(avoids defensiveness.) By describing one's own reactions, it leaves the individual fee to use it or not to use it as he sees fit..
2   avoid accusations; present data if necessary
3   describe your own reactions or feelings; describe objective consequences that have or will occur; focus on behavior and your own reaction, not on other individual or his or her attributes
4   suggest more acceptable alternative; be prepared to discuss additional alternatives; focus on alternatives
5   specific rather than general.
6   focused on behavior not the person. It is important that we refer to what a person does rather than to what we think he is. Thus we might say that a person "talked more than anyone else in this meeting" rather than that he is a "loud-mouth."
7   It takes into account the needs of both the receiver and giver of feedback. It should be given to help, not to hurt. We too often give feedback because it makes us feel better or gives us a psychological advantage.
8   It is directed toward behavior which the receiver can do something about. A person gets frustrated when reminded of some shortcoming over which he has no control.
9   It is solicited rather than imposed. Feedback is most useful when the receiver himself has formulated the kind of question which those observing him can answer or when he actively seeks feedback.
10   Feedback is useful when well-timed (soon after the behavior-depending, of course, on the person's readiness to hear it, support available from others, and so forth). Excellent feedback presented at an inappropriate time may do more harm than good.
11   sharing of information, rather than giving advice allows a person to decide for himself, in accordance with his own goals and needs. When we give advice we tell him what to do, and to some degree take away his freedom to do decide for himself.
12   It involves the amount of information the receiver can use rather than the amount we would like to give. To overload a person with feedback is to reduce the possibility that he may be able to use what he receives effectively. When we give more than can be used, we are more often than not satisfying some need of our own rather than helping the other person.
13   It concerns what is said and done, or how, not why. The "why" involves assumptions regarding motive or intent and this tends to alienate the person generate resentment, suspicion, and distrust. If we are uncertain of his motives or intent, this uncertainty itself is feedback, however, and should be revealed.
14   It is checked to insure clear communication. One way of doing this is to have the receiver try to rephrase the feedback. No matter what the intent, feedback is often threatening and thus subject to considerable distortion or misinterpretation.
15   It is checked to determine degree of agreement from others. Such "consensual validation" is of value to both the sender and receiver.
16   It is followed by attention to the consequences of the feedback. The supervisor needs to become acutely aware of the effects of his feedback.
17   It is an important step toward authenticity. Constructive feedback opens the way to a relationship which is built on trust, honest, and genuine concern and mutual growth.
Part of the feedback process involves understanding and predicting how the other person will react. Or in the case of our receiving feedback, we need to understand ways that we respond to feedback, especially threatening feedback.
People often react negatively to threatening feedback. This reaction can take a number of forms including:
1   selective reception and selective perception
2   doubting motive of the giver
3   denying validity of the data
4   rationalizing
5   attack the giver of the data
Following the guidelines to effective feedback can go a long way to limit these kinds of reactions but we need to be conscious of them nonetheless and be ready to react appropriately.
When we are on the receiving end of feedback we should be careful to avoid these pitfalls. Try to keep these points in mind.
1   try not to be defensive
2   check on possible misunderstanding ("Let me restate what I am hearing")
3   gather information from other sources
4   don't overreact
5   ask for clarification
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4b) Define conflict management. Explain the transitions in conflict through organizational structure


PROCESS  OF  CONFLICT
In sum, then, the conflict process constitutes five phases .
Phase I has three subphases.
-The first our coexistence in the sociocultural space of meanings, values, norms, status and class. This is the space of potentiality, of possibility, but not of actual tendencies, interests, and conflicts. Its nature is defined by our sociocultural dimensions; within this nature lie the seeds of all our conflicts.
The second subphase results from the transformation of potentiality into dispositions--tendencies to have opposing interests--which are clusters of attitudes connected to our needs, that lie along the major social distances separating us. Moreover, the full development of this phase requires our mutual awareness of our differences and similarities.
Awareness plus attitudes tending to opposition form the structure of conflict. Opposing attitudes can become activated by our needs. Infused with energy, they may become opposing interests, each driving towards satisfaction. This opposition develops in the context of our mutual expectations about each other in some situation, our capabilities to gratify these interests and our will to do so. The transformation of attitudes into interests initiates the third subphase. Interests along with capabilities and expectations define the situation of conflict.

Phase I is the latent conflict phase, since no overt conflict occurs. What follows is the initiation of conflict,
Phase II, which is triggered by some event stimulating the will to manifest opposing interests. This is a situation of uncertainty, for the other's reaction to such an attempt is unknown, and the risks are objectively incalculable. But the will has decided and prepared for the actual confrontation of interests, of powers--

Phase III, the balancing of powers.
The balancing phase involves three periods.
1.The first is the status quo testing period, the preliminary assessment of the initial rights and benefits one can assert against another, and the capabilities and will he appears to have.
2.The second period is the clash of social powers, the attempt by each party to manifest his interests over the other. Any and all forms of social powers may be involved, but we should discriminate between the confrontation of coercive and noncoercive powers.
3.The final period involves accommodations--an adjustment of interests in the light of the knowledge created, the uncertainty reduced by the confrontation.
In the case of coercive powers, the clash may lead to the use of force, the use of physical power to manifest one's interests in spite of the resistance of the other self. Accommodation is a negotiation among selves; force is the physical bypassing of another self.
The balancing of powers phase may manifest conflict interaction, as powers conflict and accommodations are reached. Violence may also occur in the application of deprivation or implementation of threats. Moreover, if coercion leads to force, violence will certainly be involved.
Whether through force or accommodation, this final period leads to a balance of powers, and structure of expectations,
Phase IV. This constitutes the network of formal or informal understandings and agreements based on a balancing among interests, capability, and wills. It is a structure of expectations, which involves at its core a status quo, a system of understandings concerning who owns or has other rights to what.
Nonconflict social interaction occurs within this structure, but such interaction is itself a process of learning more about another, through which the structure becomes gradually reinterpreted and incrementally altered. Such change is small and limited, for the structure is based on a given balance of powers, a specific historical triangle of interests, capability, and wills.
This triangle also changes: interests, capabilities, and wills shift in time, sometimes rapidly and radically. Thus, the structure of expectations becomes increasingly or is suddenly incongruent with the underlying state of affairs.
Finally,
Phase V of the conflict process is disruption. Although a structure of expectations may end simply as a result of one party moving away or dying, ordinarily the structure will be disrupted. Changes in social conditions (a promotion, a hospitalization, an accident), or natural disasters (fire, flood, earthquake), or events (war, revolution, terrorism) which can upset a structure whether it is congruent with the underlying triangle or not. Often, however, an increasingly incongruent structure continues to exist, in which case there is corresponding likelihood that some small and chance event--a trigger--will disrupt it.
Once disrupted, the relations between the parties may return to that of potentiality, if they completely separate, or a structure of conflict if their interests are no longer opposing but there is some awareness--some contact between them. Often, however, social relationships are continuous, as with husband and wife. Then, upon disruption the process of conflict returns to the situation of uncertainty. The resulting balancing of power, the establishing of a new structure, reorders nonconflict interaction in line with new interests, capabilities, and credibility.
This rephasing of the conflict process, this re-enactment of the previous phases, is not a simple rewriting on an erased slate. The preceding experiences, balances, and their structures inform the new balancing, the new balance. Therefore, this conflict process represents more a helix than a cycle, a process spiraling upward in learning and adjustments. And unless there is a change in the fundamental conditions of the relationship, the helix will lead to greater cooperation and less conflict.



THE   EIGHT  STEPS  TO  CONFLICT   RESOLUTION.
Create an Effective  ATMOSPHERE.
Clarify  PERCEPTIONS
Focus on Individual and  SHARED  NEEDS.
Build  SHARED  POSITIVE  POWER.
LOOK  TO  THE  FUTURE ,  then Learn from the Past
Generate  OPTIONS.
Develop  DOABLES.
Make  MUTUAL  BENEFITS  AGREEMENTS.

The " process" is based on the following five principles. Keep them in mind whenever you are involved in a conflict:
Think "we," rather than "I versus you" - working together helps solve conflicts.
Try to keep in mind the long term relationship.
Good conflict resolution will improve the relationship.
Good conflict resolution benefits both parties.
Conflict resolution and relationship building go hand in hand.
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THE  ORGANIZATION  IS  THE  SAME   AS  LISTED  IN   THE
ABOVE  2  QUESTIONS.
WE  FOLLOW  THESE  STEPS   IN  MANAGING   THE  CONFLICTS
BETWEEN   TWO  DEPARTMENTS  IN  CORPORATE  PLANNING
SESSIONS.

The Eight Steps

Step 1 - Create an Effective Atmosphere

Creating an effective atmosphere is a very important step in the conflict resolution process. It is more likely for mutual agreements be reached when atmosphere is given careful consideration. When thinking about atmosphere, remember these ideas:
•   Personal preparation -- doing all you can to ready yourself in positive ways to approach issues honestly and openely.
•   Timing -- choosing a time that is best for all parties involved. A time in which no one is feeling pressed to move on or pressured in other ways.
•   Location -- where you meet is as important as when you meet. It is best to pick a place where all parties can feel comfortable and at ease.
•   Opening statements -- try to start out on a good note. Good openings are ones that let others know you are ready and willing to approach conflict with a team-like attitude that focuses on positive ends. They should also ensure the trust and confidentiality of the parties involved.

Step 2 - Clarify Perceptions

Clarify individual perceptions involved in the conflict. You can't solve a problem if you don't know what it is about.
Sort the parts of the conflict - ask what it is about.
Avoid ghost conflicts -- get to the heart of the matter and avoid side issues.
Clarify what, if any, values are involved.
Recognize that the parties involved need each other to be most effective.
Additionally, clarify your perceptions of the other party.
Avoid stereotyping.
Listen carefully.
Recognize the other's needs and values.
Empathize - ask why they feel the way they do.
Clear up misconceptions you may have of them.

Step 3 - Focus on Individual and Shared Needs

Expand on shared needs. Realize that you need one another in order to successfully resolve conflicts. Be concerned about meeting others needs as well as your own. When you take the time to look, you will recognize that individuals often share needs in common.

Step 4 - Build Shared Positive Power

Power is made up of people's outlooks, ideas, convictions, and actions. A positive view of power enables people to be most effective. A negative outlook on power proves disempowering. Instead of "power with," it encourages "power over." Positive power promotes building together and strengthening partnerships. When parties in conflict have this outlook, they can encourage each other to use shared positive power. This gives an ultimate advantage to all involved because each person's positive energy is being drawn upon for a worthwhile solution.

Step 5 - Look to the Future, then Learn from the Past

Don't dwell on negative past conflicts, or you won't be able to deal positively in the present or the future. Try to understand what happened in the past, and avoid repeating the same mistakes over. Don't get stuck in a rut; learn from past conflicts and be forgiving. Let others know "I'm not mad at you, I'm mad at what you did."

Step 6 - Generate Options

Beware of preconceived answers.
Look for common threads.
Make sure options are workable for all parties involved.
Set aside disagreements and focus on options that seem most workable.
Avoid spin-off conflicts by bypassing options that won't work for all involved.
In Generating Options:
Ask first for the conflict partner's options -- listen and learn.
Try free-flowing options:
•   make new suggestions
•   write them down
•   wait to discuss them till they're all out on the table
•   group similar options together
•   narrow down the list
•   predict possible outcomes
•   look at all ideas, no matter how silly they may seem
•   Imagine
Identify Key Options; these are ones that will:
•   meet one or more of the shared needs
•   meet individual needs and are compatible with other's needs
•   use mutual positive power
•   improve the relationship
•   be at least acceptable but preferably satisfying to all involved
When looking at options, don't let past experiences cloud present perceptions and decisions.

Step 7 - Develop "Doables" -- Stepping-Stones to Action

Doables are specific actions that have a good chance at being successful. Doables are:
•   the ideas that have the best chance at success
•   steps that never promote unfair advantages on any sides
•   found on shared input and information from all parties
•   trust builders - they add confidence in working together
•   actions that meet shared needs

Step 8 - Make Mutual Benefit Agreements

Mutual-Benefit Agreements should give you lasting solutions to specific conflicts.
Instead of demands, focus on developing agreements and find shared goals and needs.
Build on "Doable" things by working on the smaller stepping-stone solutions.
Pay attention to the needs of the other person in addition to your own interests.
Recognize the "givens" - basic things that cannot be altered or compromised.
Clarify exactly what is expected of you in the agreement - your individual responsibilities.
Keep the conflict partnership process going by using and sharing these skills with others.

Handling Anger

It's alright to feel anger, but we should not allow it to rule. Instead, we should identify the source of our anger and then try to move past it. When this is done, we can focus on the positive steps of conflict resolution. In partnerships, the idea is not to break down - it is to focus on building up.
Dealing With People Who Only Want Things Their Way

Effective conflict resolution is not deciding who gets their way. Using conflict partnership skills can help you find a resolution that is "getting our way," even with people who seem locked in a pattern of "either your way or mine."
When the other party seems to be defining conflict resolution as an "I-versus-you" struggle:
•   try extra hard to set a partnership atmosphere
•   state clearly that you see conflict resolution as a process in which you need each other
•   focus on shared needs and shared power
•   generate specific options and doables that will improve the relationship for both of you
If the other party is focusing on power or control and thinking losing either will weaken them:
•   focus on developing an "our" power attitude
•   recall times that effective shared power has worked for the relationship in the past
When the other party focuses on controlling the situation rather than on the needs of the situation:
•   encourage them to talk about what they think the needs of the situation really are
•   try to come up with doables based on those needs

Dealing with Conflicts that Involve an Injustice

An injustice involves a violation of values or principles that are important to you.
Make sure that you understand the differences between behavior that is unjust and behavior you simply do not like.
If you're confident that a conflict does indeed involve an injustice, you need to tell the other party involved how see what has occurred.
Focus on the behavior, not on the person. In injustice situations, we often hear people saying, "You aren't fair!" This kind of statement could result in a reply such as "Well, if you think I'm an unfair person, then I guess we have nothing to talk about." A better way to handle this would be to start with a positive opening statement such as, "I feel what you did was unfair, and I want to understand why you did it. Were you aware I might feel unjustly treated? Would you feel unjustly treated if someone did that to you?" This is more likely to result in a positive response and some feedback.
Clearly state when you think an injustice has been done. Do it in a way that encourages positive behavior and successful resolution.
You could:
•   Ask what alternate behavior could have been used.
•   Ask them to put themselves in your shoes to understand how you were affected by their behavior.
•   Focus on the positive by reminding them of past examples when their fair behavior resulted in good partnership resolution.
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human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.

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18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
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