Human Resources/Maintenance management
Greetings!! Pl help me in answering the following questions.
1. Elaborate your understanding about maintenance planning and scheduling.
2. Explain the importance of maintenance budgeting. Discuss the advantages of Zero Based Budget.
3. What do you understand by the term Total Safety Management? Differentiate between investigation of incidents and audits.
4. What do you mean by Reliability? How it is different from Quality? Explain BATH-TUB CURVE.
5. Explain Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) and its process of implementation.
6. Write the short notes on the following
b) Spare Parts Inventory
c) Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
d) Condition Based Maintenance (CBM)
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1] Elaborate your understanding about maintenance planning and scheduling.
Maintenance Planning and scheduling is an important element in developing a well functioning maintenance organization. In order for it to work, the organization should do equipment inspections through preventive maintenance, technical database such as bill of materials, work order history, and standard job plans. Advanced methods are also a must in leading the companys focus on simplifying the planning and scheduling process to make it truly effective.
Root cause analysis, another process of maintenance management, if properly implemented results to the reduction of maintenance planner's work load; decrease in inventory-replenishment purchase orders; deduction of manually-prepared direct purchase requisitions; condensation of maintenance storeroom inventories, while increasing reliability; and generation of new measures for tracking plant reliability.
MAINTENANCE PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
Effective planning and scheduling contribute significantly to the following:
Reduced maintenance cost.
Improved utilization of the maintenance workforce by reducing delays and interruptions.
Improved quality of maintenance work by adopting the best methods and procedures and assigning the most qualified workers for the job.
Planning and Scheduling Objectives
Minimizing the idle time of maintenance workers.
Maximizing the efficient use of work time, material, and equipment.
Maintaining the operating equipment at a responsive level to the need of production in terms of delivery schedule and quality.
Classification of Maintenance Work According to Planning and Scheduling Purposes
Routine maintenance: are maintenance operations of a periodic nature. They are planned and scheduled and in advance. They are covered by blanket orders.
Emergency or breakdown maintenance: interrupt maintenance schedules in order to be performed. They are planned and scheduled as they happened.
Design modifications: are planned and scheduled and they depend on eliminating the cause of repeated breakdowns.
Scheduled overhaul and shutdowns of the plant: planned and scheduled in advanced.
Overhaul, general repairs, and replacement: planned and scheduled in advanced.
Preventive maintenance: planned and scheduled in advanced.
An essential part of planning and scheduling is to forecast future work and to balance the workload between these categories.
The maintenance management system should aim to have over 90% of the maintenance work planned and scheduled.
Planning is the process by which the elements required to perform a task are determined in advance of the job start.
It comprises all the functions related to the preparation of:
1. The work order
2. Bill of material
3. Purchase requisition
4. Necessary drawings
5. Labor planning sheet including standard times
6. All data needed prior to scheduling and releasing the work order.
Good planning is a prerequisite for sound scheduling.
Determine the job content.
Develop work plan. This entails the sequence of the activities in the job and establishing the best methods and procedures to accomplish the job.
Establish crew size for the job.
Plan and order parts and material.
Check if special tools and equipment are needed and obtain them.
Assign workers with appropriate skills.
Review safety procedures.
Set priorities for all maintenance work.
Assign cost accounts.
Complete the work order.
Review the backlog and develop plans for controlling it.
Predict the maintenance load using effective forecasting technique.
Basic Levels of Planning Process (Depend on The Planning Horizon)
1. Long-rang planning: it covers a period of 3 to 5 years and sets plans for future activities and long-range improvement.
2. Medium-range planning: it covers a period of 1 month to 1 year.
3. Short-rang planning: it covers a period of 1 day to 1 week. It focuses on the determination of all the elements required to perform maintenance tasks in advance.
Long and Medium-Range Planning
Needs to utilize the following:
1. Sound forecasting techniques to estimate the maintenance load.
2. Reliable job standards times to estimate staffing requirements.
3. Aggregate planning tools such as linear programming to determine resource requirements.
sets plans for future activities and long-range improvement.
Specify how the maintenance workers will operate.
Provide details of major overhauls, construction jobs, preventive maintenance plans, and plant shutdowns.
Balances the need for staffing over the period covered.
Estimates required spare parts and material acquisition.
It focuses on the determination of all the elements required to perform maintenance tasks in advance.
Is the process by which jobs are matched with resources and sequenced to be executed at a certain points in time.
Scheduling deals with the specific time and phasing of planned jobs together with the orders to perform the work, monitoring the work, controlling it, and reporting on job progress.
Successful planning needs a feedback from scheduling.
Reliable Schedule Must Take Into Consideration
A job priority ranking reflecting the criticality of the job.
The availability of all materials needed for the work order in the plant.
The production master schedule.
Realistic estimates and what is likely to happen.
Flexibility in the schedule.
Maintenance Schedule Can be Prepared at Three Levels (Depend on The Time Horizon)
1. Long-range (master) schedule
2. Weekly schedule
3. Daily schedule
Long-Range (master) Schedule
Covering a period of 3 months to 1 year.
Based on existing maintenance work orders (blanket work order, backlog, PM, anticipated EM).
Balancing long-term demand for maintenance work with available resources.
Spare parts and material could be identified and ordered in advance.
Subject to revision and updating to reflect changes in the plans and maintenance work.
Covering 1 week.
Generated from the master schedule.
Takes into account current operations schedules and economic considerations.
Allow 10% to 15% of the workforce to be available for emergency work.
The schedule prepared for the current week and the following one in order to consider the available backlog.
The work orders scheduled in this week are sequenced based in priority.
CPM and integer programming techniques can be used to generate a schedule.
Covering 1 day.
Generated from weekly schedule.
Prepared the day before.
Interrupted to perform EM.
Priorities are used to schedule the jobs.
Elements of Sound Scheduling
Requirements for effective scheduling:
Written work orders that are derived from a well-conceived planning process. (Work to be done, methods to be followed, crafts needed, spare parts needed, and priority).
Information about craft availability for each shift.
Stocks of spare parts and information on restocking.
Elements of Sound Scheduling
Requirements for effective scheduling:
Information on the availability of special equipment and tools necessary for maintenance work.
Access to the plant production schedule and knowledge about when the facilities will be available for service without interrupting production schedule.
Well-define priorities for maintenance work.
Information about jobs already scheduled that are behind the schedule (backlog).
Scheduling Procedures (Steps)
Sort backlog work orders by crafts.
Arrange orders by priority.
Compile a list of completed and carry over jobs.
Consider job duration, location, travel distance, and the possibility of combining jobs in the same area.
Schedule multi-craft jobs to start at the beginning of every shift.
Issue a daily schedule (not for shutdown maintenance).
Authorize a supervisor to make work assignments (dispatching).
Maintenance Job Priority System
Priorities are established to ensure that the most critical work is scheduled first.
It is developed under coordination with operations staff.
It should be dynamic.
It must be updated periodically to reflect changes in operation and maintenance strategies.
It typically includes three to ten levels of priority.
The objective of the scheduling techniques is to construct a time chart showing:
The start and finish for each job.
The interdependencies among jobs.
The critical jobs that require special attention and effective monitoring.
Such techniques are:
Modified Gantt chart
Integer and stochastic programming.
2] Explain the importance of maintenance budgeting. Discuss the advantages of Zero Based Budget.
PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES FOR SUCCESSFUL BUDGETING
To be successful, budgets should be prepared in accordance with the following principles:
REALISTIC AND QUANTIFIABLE In a world of limited resources, a company must ration its own resources by setting goals and objectives which are reasonably attainable. Realism engenders loyalty and commitment among employees, motivating them to their highest performance. In addition, wide discrepancies, caused by unrealistic projections, have a negative effect on the credit worthiness of a company and may dissuade lenders. A company evaluates each potential activity to determine those that will result in the most appropriate resource allocation. A company accomplishes this through the quantification of the costs and benefits of the activities.
HISTORICAL The budget reflects a clear understanding of past results and a keen sense of expected future changes. While past results cannot be a perfect predictor, they flag important events and benchmarks.
PERIOD SPECIFIC The budget period must be of reasonable length. The shorter the period, the greater the need for detail and control mechanisms. The length of the budget period dictates the time limitations for introducing effective modifications. Although plans and projects differ in length and scope, a company formulates each of its budgets on a 12-month basis.
STANDARDIZED To facilitate the budget process, managers should use standardized forms, formulas, and research techniques. This increases the efficiency and consistency of the input and the quality of the planning. Computer-aided accounting, analyzing, and reporting not only furnish managers with comprehensive, current, "real time" results, but also afford them the flexibility to test new models, and to include relevant and high-powered charts and tables with relatively little effort.
INCLUSIVE Efficient companies decentralize the budget process down to the smallest logical level of responsibility. Those responsible for the results take part in the development of their budgets and learn how their activities are interrelated with the other segments of the company. Each has a hand in creating a budget and setting its goals. Participants from the various organizational segments meet to exchange ideas and objectives, to discover new ideas, and to minimize redundancies and counterproductive programs. In this way, those accountable buy into the process, cooperate more, work harder, and therefore have more potential for success.
SUCCESSIVELY REVIEWED Decentralization does not exclude the thorough review of budget proposals at successive management levels. Management review assures a proper fit within the overall "master budget."
FORMALLY ADOPTED AND DISSEMINATED Top management formally adopts the budgets and communicates their decisions to the responsible personnel. When top management has assembled the master budget and formally accepted it as the operating plan for the company, it distributes it in a timely manner.
FREQUENTLY EVALUATED Responsible parties use the master budget and their own department budgets for information and guidance. On a regular basis, according to a schedule and in a standardized manner, they compare actual results with their budgets. For an annual budget, managers usually report monthly, quarterly, and semi-annually. Since considerable detail is needed, the accountant plays a vital role in the reporting function. A company uses a well-designed budget program as an effective mechanism for fore-casting realizable results over a specific period, planning and coordinating its various operations, and controlling the implementation of the budget plans.
FUNCTIONS AND BENEFITS OF BUDGETING
Budgeting has two primary functions: planning and control. The planning process expresses all the ideas and plans in quantifiable terms. Careful planning in the initial stages creates the framework for control, which a company initiates when it includes each department in the budgeting process, standardizes procedures, defines lines of responsibility, establishes performance criteria, and sets up timetables. The careful planning and control of a budget benefit a company in many ways, including:
ENHANCING MANAGERIAL PERSPECTIVE In recent years the pace and complexity of business have outpaced the ability to manage by "the seat of one's pants." On a day-to-day basis, most managers focus their attention on routine problems. However, in preparing the budget, managers are compelled to consider all aspects of a company's internal activities. The act of making estimates about future economic conditions, and about the company's ability to respond to them, forces managers to synthesize the external economic environment with their internal goals and objectives.
FLAGGING POTENTIAL PROBLEMS Because the budget is a blueprint and road map, it alerts managers to variations from expectations which are a cause for concern. When a flag is raised, managers can revise their immediate plans to change a product mix, revamp an advertising campaign, or borrow money to cover cash shortfalls.
COORDINATING ACTIVITIES Preparation of a budget assumes the inclusion and coordination of the activities of the various segments within a business. The budgeting process demonstrates to managers the inter-connectedness of their activities.
EVALUATING PERFORMANCE Budgets provide management with established criteria for quick and easy performance evaluations. Managers may increase activities in one area where results are well beyond exceptions. In other instances, managers may need to reorganize activities whose outcomes demonstrate a consistent pattern of inefficiency.
REFINING THE HISTORICAL VIEW The importance of clear and detailed historical data cannot be overstated. Yet the budgeting process cannot allow the historical perspective to become crystallized. Managers need to distill the lessons of the most current results and filter them through their historical perspective. The need for a flexible and relevant historical perspective warrants its vigilant revision and expansion as conditions and experience warrant.
Six Steps to Budgeting for Maintenance
1. Look through your logbook or maintenance records and identify all the items that you have spent money on during the last ten years.
This will include items such as cleaning gutters, servicing the boiler, testing the electrical systems, portable appliance testing, lightning conductor testing, repainting timberwork, rodding drains, replacing broken window glass, testing fire extinguishers, replacing light bulbs etc.
2. Draw up a chart or create a spreadsheet with all the maintenance items you have identified listed down the left hand side under the heading tasks'. Put each of the years i.e. 1999 to 2009 at the top of a separate column working across the sheet.
3. Using the information in your logbook or your accounts write the appropriate cost of each maintenance item under the year in which it occurred. You might also wish to add items that are not carried out presently but ought to be tackled as part of a regular maintenance programme. You could either estimate the cost or seek a quotation from a local company.
4. Totalling the figures across the rows will give you the sum of how much you have spent on each item in the ten-year period. If you then add up all the ten-yearly totals for all of your maintenance items this will give you an estimate of how much your maintenance costs will be in the next ten year period.
5. To estimate how much money you should set aside each year for maintenance, divide the total ten-yearly cost of all the maintenance items by ten.
As there are always unforeseen events, you might want to add a contingency to this amount - 10% is usually a sensible figure. The yearly amount plus the contingency is your maintenance budget for the year and should be ring-fenced for this purpose.
6. Don't forget about inflation! It is good practice to review your chart or spreadsheet each year and increase all your figures by the current rate of inflation (somewhere in the region of 2% at present). This means that the money set aside will increase a little each year and will hopefully still cover the necessary expenditure.
You can carry out a similar exercise for major works too. Repair projects such as recovering the roof, overhauling the rainwater goods, rewiring, replacing the boiler, refitting the kitchen, redecoration etc. can be scheduled in the same way, though you may wish to consider a 50-year cycle for these items. If you are not sure how often these major projects need to be tackled, you might ask your architect or building surveyor for help.
They may also be able to give you an estimate of how much each job will cost so that you can put a sensible figure in your chart or spreadsheet. This will allow you to plan for major works and perhaps set an annual target for fundraising towards your fabric repair costs.
Zero base budgeting
'Zero-Based Budgeting - ZBB'
A method of budgeting in which all expenses must be justified for each new period. Zero-based budgeting starts from a "zero base" and every function within an organization is analyzed for its needs and costs. Budgets are then built around what is needed for the upcoming period, regardless of whether the budget is higher or lower than the previous one.
ZBB allows top-level strategic goals to be implemented into the budgeting process by tying them to specific functional areas of the organization, where costs can be first grouped, then measured against previous results and current expectations.
Because of its detail-oriented nature, zero-based budgeting may be a rolling process done over several years, with only a few functional areas reviewed at a time by managers or group leadership.
Zero-based budgeting can lower costs by avoiding blanket increases or decreases to a prior period's budget. It is, however, a time-consuming process that takes much longer than traditional, cost-based budgeting. The practice also favors areas that achieve direct revenues or production; their contributions are more easily justified than in departments such as client service and research and development.
Zero based budget
Start each budget period afresh-not based on historical data
Budgets are zero unless managers make the case for resources-the relevant manager must justify the whole of the budget allocation
It means that each activity is questioned as if it were new before any resources are allocated to it.
Each plan of action has to be justified in terms of total cost involved and total benefit to accrue, with no reference to past activities.
Zero based budgets are designed to prevent budgets creeping up each year with inflation
Advantages of ZBB
Forces budget setters to examine every item.
Allocation of resources linked to results and needs.
Develops a questioning attitude.
Wastage and budget slack should be eliminated.
Prevents creeping budgets based on previous years figures with an added on percentage.
Encourages managers to look for alternatives.
Disadvantages of ZBB
It a complex time consuming process
Short term benefits may be emphasised to the detriment of long term planning
Affected by internal politics - can result in annual conflicts over budget allocation
3] What do you understand by the term Total Safety Management? Differentiate between investigation of incidents and audits.
Total Safety Management Definition
Total safety management is a performance-oriented approach to safety and health management that gives organizations a sustainable competitive advantage in global marketplace by establishing a safe and health work environment that is conducive to consistent peak performance and that is improved continually forever.
This definition contains several key elements that must be understood if one is to fully understand TSM. These elements are as follow:
2.1.1 Sustainable competitive advantage
Every organization that competes at any level, but especially those that compete at the global level must have competitive advantages. These are capabilities or characteristics that allow them to outperform the competition. For example, if the organization in question is a baseball team, it might have such competitive advantages as an excellent pitching staff, several speedy base runners, two or three power hitters and/or outstanding fielders in key positions. These advantages, if exploited wisely, will help make the baseball team a winner. If these advantages can be sustained over time, they will help make team a consistent winner.
This same concept applies to organizations that compete in the global marketplace. In order to survive and proper, they need as many competitive advantages as possible. Traditionally, competitive advantages have been sought in the key of quality, productive, service, and distribution. However, peak-performing organization has learned that a safe and healthy work environment is essential to gaining competitive advantages in these critical areas. In fact, a safe and healthy work environment is itself a competitive advantage.
2.2 Peak Performance
The primary driver behind TSM is organizational, team, and individual performance. An organization's ability to survive and proper in the global marketplace is determined largely by the collective performance of individuals and teams. Consistent peak performance by all individual and teams in an organization is essential to long-term success in the global marketplace. The quality of the work environment is a major determinant of the performance levels that individuals, teams and organizations are able to achieve. A better work environment promotes better performance.
2.3 Continual Improvement Forever
People work in an environment, and the quality of that environment affects the quality of work. The work environment is a major determinant of the quality of an organization's products, and services. In the age of global competition, quality is an ever-changing phenomenon. A quality that is competitive today may not be tomorrow. Consequently, continual improvement is essential. If quality must be improved continually, it follows that the work environment must also be improved continually.
2.4 Translating TSM into Action
There are three fundamental components through which the TSM philosophy is translated into action on a daily basis. These three components are the TSM steering Committee, Improvement Project Teams (IPTs) and the TSM Facilitator.
The TSM Steering Committee oversees the organization's safety and health program. It is responsible for formulation of safety and health policies, the approval of internal regulations and work procedures relating to safety and health, the allocation of resources, and approval of recommendations made by the IPTs.
2.5 Implementing TSM: the Model
Figure 2.1 contains a three-phase fifteen-step model that can be used for successfully implementing TSM in any organization.
Steps in the TSM implementation process
Planning and preparation
1. Gain Executive-Level Commitment
2. Establish the TSM Steering Committee
3. Mold the steering committee into Team
4. Give the Steering Committee Safety and Health Awareness Training
5. Develop the organization's Safety and Health Vision and Guiding Principles
6. The organization's Safety and Health Mission and Objectives
7. Communicate and Inform
8. Identification and Assessment
9. Identify the Organization's Safety and Health Strengths and Weaknesses.
10. Identify Safety and Health Advocates and Resisters.
11. Benchmark Initial Employee Perceptions Concerning The Work Environment.
12. Tailor Implementation to the organization.
13. Identify Specific Improvement Projects.
14. Establish, Train, and Activate Improvement Project Teams
15. Activate the Feedback Loop
16. Establish a TSM Culture
Figure 2.1: Model for implementation
2.6 Executive Commitment A Must
In any organization, the aim and direction are decided by the chief executive officer (CEO) and the members of his or her executive management team. These individuals decide what will be emphasized where limited resources will be spent, what behavior will be rewarded and what won't, and how incentives will be used. Mid-managers and supervisors take their cues from executive mangers. They, in turn, pass perception along to employees.
The TSM philosophy requires that the total organization be involved continually improving the work environment. TSM cannot be implemented in just one department or by just a few employees. By definition, such an approach would not be total safety management, and anything short of total environment robs the organization of the full benefits of TSM.
Consider just a few of the things that must be done in order for TSM to be implemented:
Safety and health must be included as high priority concerns in the organization's strategic plan.
Resources must be allocated to cover implementation costs. Employee performance relative to safety and health must be monitored, evaluated, and rewarded as appropriate.
Safety and health must be monitored, evaluated, and rewarded as appropriate.
Employees must be shown that safety is a must no matter how pressed the organization becomes to meet deadlines
Who but the CEO and executive managers of the organization has the authority to do these things? The answer is no one. Consequently, executive commitment is a must.
2.7 Achieving Executive Commitment
What does it mean to achieve executive commitment? The concept is defined by its three components as shown in Figure 2.2. Any other concept for that matter will be personally involved in its implementation.
Figure 2.2: Components of executive commitment
Figure 2.3 contains a checklist of ways in which an executivelevel manager can be personally involved in TSM.
An executive manager who is completely committed to TSM will want to serve on the organization's TSM steering Committee. The ideal steering committee consists of the organization's executive managers, or if the CEO and his/her executive managers do not serve on the TSM Steering Committee, they will have to go to even greater lengths to demonstrate their commitment to safety health. Otherwise the committee's credibility will suffer.
Figure 2.3: TSM personal involvement checklist for executive- level mangers
Serving as a member of the organization's TSM Steering
Advocating for inclusion of safety and health concerns in the organization's strategic plan.
Personally giving improvement project teams (IPTs) their charges
Participating in training activities as appropriate ,
Maintaining a high profile in and supportive attitude toward all TSM activities
investigation of safety incidents
The term "accident" can be defined as an unplanned event that interrupts the completion of an activity, and that may (or may not) include injury or property damage.
An incident usually refers to an unexpected event that did not cause injury or damage this time but had the potential. "Near miss" or "dangerous occurrence" are also terms for an event that could have caused harm but did not.
Please note: The term incident is used in some situations and jurisdictions to cover both an "accident" and "incident". It is argued that the word "accident" implies that the event was related to fate or chance. When the root cause is determined, it is usually found that many events were predictable and could have been prevented if the right actions were taken -- making the event not one of fate or chance (thus, the word incident is used). For simplicity, we will use the term accident to mean all of the above events.
The information that follows is intended to be a general guide for supervisors or joint occupational health and safety committee members. When accidents are investigated, the emphasis should be concentrated on finding the root cause of the accident rather than the investigation procedure itself so you can prevent it from happening again. The purpose is to find facts that can lead to actions, not to find fault. Always look for deeper causes. Do not simply record the steps of the event.
Reasons to investigate a workplace accident include:
most importantly, to find out the cause of accidents and to prevent similar accidents in the future
to fulfill any legal requirements
to determine the cost of an accident
to determine compliance with applicable safety regulations
to process workers' compensation claims
Incidents that involve no injury or property damage should still be investigated to determine the hazards that should be corrected. The same principles apply to a quick inquiry of a minor incident and to the more formal investigation of a serious event.
Audit is a systematic and, wherever possible, independent examination to determine whether activities and related results conform to planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve the organization's policy and objectives
Safety audits are tools that are utilised to evaluate an organization's operations, procedures and procedures to discover existing and potential Hazard and the actions needed to render these hazards harmless. There are two standard types of audits, internal and external.
A Safety audit normally consists of a number of different areas such as:
Company Health and Safety Policy
Workplace Hazard Assessment and Control
Safe Work Practices
Safe Job Procedures
Personal Protective Equipment
Training and Communication
Investigations and Reporting
Records and Statistics