Human Resources/mba


Dear Sir

Plz help to solve below questions

“Borderless world, Diversity   Management, and Knowledge power, are some of the overarching factors being encountered by the Human Resource Mangers of 21st century business world”. How do they affect the dynamics of Human Resource Management in today’s organizations? Explain with examples from the organization you are familiar with or have been working  for. Briefly describe the organization, you are referring to.

2.   “Each employee in an organization performs various roles. Role perception of a manager and an employee make a complex web as they interact”.   Elaborate this statement in the light of socialisation factors in organizational socialization process. Outline the importance of initial Job socialization on the employee and the organization. Explain with the help of your personal experience and organizational  experience with respect to the above concepts.   Explain the situation and describe the organization, you are referring to.

3.    Consider Potential Appraisal, Assessment Centres, and Career and Succession Planning in an organizational context. Describe the dynamics of these concepts, their interactional outcomes, and impact  on overall functioning and management of the organization.
  Put down your experience with respect to the dynamics of these factors in totality as seen by you in an organizational situation or the situations which you are familiar with.   
Briefly describe the situation and the organization, you are referring to.

4.   How do you see the role, presence, necessity, and impact of ‘Mentoring and Performance Coaching’ in organizational situations in Indian context in general?
  Critically describe the experience the organizations have with respect to these concepts, their applicability, effectiveness and prospect. You may like to compare  few organizations you have known or familiar with or even you can come out with your own experience in organizational context. Describe the context, and the organization you are referring to.

I  will send  the balance  asap.
2.   “Each employee in an organization performs various roles. Role perception of a manager and an employee make a complex web as they interact”.   Elaborate this statement in the light of socialisation factors in organizational socialization process. Outline the importance of initial Job socialization on the employee and the organization. Explain with the help of your personal experience and organizational  experience with respect to the above concepts.   Explain the situation and describe the organization, you are referring to.

Socialization process in an organization.

The first day in  the work place is most memorable one. People remember their first day in any of these events. It is because of the new experience and new expectation. At the same time, we tend to feel anxious, and anxiety rules us over the new expectations and ongoing experience. There is, of course, a lot of uncertainty over the various events and moments to come on the way ahead. We tend to develop stress over a small matter also. We are not sure whom to talk with, what to talk about, what to do and many things revolve in our minds. Moreover, since we do not know people there, we tend to feel isolated and uncared for. All these are very discouraging but we have come across these things many a times which is inevitable most of the time. But all these anxiety and uncertainty can be reduced to minimum, if proper steps are carried out. It can be minimized or even reduced to certain extent.

The human resource department in every organization plays a major role in new employee orientation, that is, the role of coordination, which ensures that the appropriate components are in place. As job offers are made and accepted, the HR department should instruct the new employee regarding each and every event they would come across along with their job description. This process is known as orientation and the ongoing interaction with the employee during the work life in an organization is termed socialization.

Socialization is the process of mutual adaptation of new employees and new employer to one another. In course of familiarization to each other, employees learn the organizational culture, values, attitudes, and behaviors appropriate to their roles in the organization. It is a process of adaptation that takes place as individuals attempt to learn the values and norms of work roles.

Some of the purposes of socialization in any organization are to ensure predictability of employee behavior, to substitute for rules guiding employee behavior, to increase employee performance and satisfaction, and to reduce anxiety.

Orientation - A first step of socialization
Many a time's people are confused with orientation and socialization. Orientation is the introduction of a new employee to the organization, the requirement of job, the social situation in which he will be working and the organization's culture. The organization's culture includes its values, shared beliefs, history, tradition and norms of behavior expressed as do's and don'ts. Orientation is a part and first step of socialization process. A new employee who is socialized understands the key points about an organization and its people and why things are done in particular way.

Orientation should create an initial favorable impression. Key ingredients of the good first impression include sufficient information about when and where to report for work, efficiently handled paperwork and friendly people to guide new employees. Orientation should encourage acceptance by other employees. Introductions, informal interaction, a tour of the facilities with short stops to hear people talk about their jobs and history of employment at the farm, and opportunity for the new employees to ask questions all can help gain acceptance.

Every organization has a culture of its own in which the new employee may find it difficult to adapt in the beginning. The culture of an organization plays an important role in building the concept of socialization. It is necessary to examine organization culture, roles, values and norms to understand the concept of socialization in any organization. The shared values and beliefs, attitudes and behaviors that interact with a company's employee, organizational structure and control system constitutes the organizational culture. It is very important for a new employee to know about the organizations' culture to understand how things are done, what behavioral outcomes are important and how others are behaving in the organization.

In any organization, a new person can easily be socialized if and when their behavior conforms to the organizations' standards. If organizational roles, values and norms are rejected by a new employee, the socialization process will be complicated. Therefore, the organizational culture, values, roles and norms are inter-related and make the socialization process easily accessible to those who understand and act as per these standards.
Employee Performance and Organizational Stability
Employee's performance depends to a considerable degree on knowing what he should or should not do. Understanding the right way to do a job indicates proper socialization. Furthermore, the appraisal of his performance includes how well they fit into the organization. The qualities like how well one can get along with coworker, have acceptable work habits and how well one can demonstrate right attitude, differ among jobs and organizations. As a result, proper socialization becomes a significant factor in influencing both the actual job performance and how it is perceived by others.

Over a period of time, when jobs are filled and vacated with a minimum of disruption, the organization will be more stable. Its objectives will be more smoothly transferred between generations. Loyalty and commitment to the organization should be easier to maintain because the organization's philosophy and objectives will appear consistent over time. Given that most managers value high employee performance and organizational stability, the proper socialization of employees should be important.

Socialization to Reduce Anxiety and Adjust To New Situation
The entry of an outsider into an organization is an anxiety-producing situation. Stress is high because the new member feels a lack of identification; if not with the work itself, certainly with a new superior, new co-worker, a new work location, and a new set of rules and regulations. A feeling of isolation and loneliness are not unusual. This anxiety state has at least two implications. First, new employees need special attention to put them at ease. This usually means providing an adequate amount of information to reduce uncertainty and ambiguity. Second, the existence of tension can be positive in that it often acts to motivate individuals to learn the values and norms of their newly assumed role as quickly as possible. Therefore, the new member is anxious about the new role but is motivated to learn the ropes and rapidly become an accepted member of the organization.

The anxiety is high at entry and the new member usually wants to reduce that anxiety quickly. The information obtained during the recruitment and selection stages is always incomplete and usually distorted. New employees, therefore, must alter their understanding of their role to fit more complete information they get once they are on the job. The point is that there is no instant adjustment - every new member goes through a settling-in period that tends to follow a relatively standard pattern.

The learning associated with socialization goes beyond the formal job description and the expectations that may be made by people in human resources or by the new member's manager. Socialization is influenced by subtle and less subtle statements and behaviors offered up by colleagues, management, employees, clients, and other people with whom new members come in contact.

It is clear that socialization process is important in every organization. But, many organizations do not have any formal socialization program. The organization has to organize a program regarding the awareness and importance of orientation and socialization program to old employees so that they can be a part of every such programs. Often the old employees are reluctant to change and might not prefer the enrollment of new employee in their group, so they should be trained regarding the process and importance of socialization as most of them are not aware about it.

In most of the cases, organizations use a one way communication system for socialization process. They believe in dictating the terms and conditions to the new employee. The perception and ideas of the employees are not considered at all which stifles the creative instincts of the new employee. This should be improved by implanting two way communication process during the orientation as well as socialization process. The new employee should be encouraged to ask various questions on orientation program and further while working.

It is not necessary that every organization has to follow same process all the time. If we can come up with new ways that can be customized according the organizational needs then it could save a lot of cost as well as manpower. The organizations can use new technology like audio-visual aids, multimedia presentations and different software can be utilized so as to lessen the manpower required.

•   Role: activities, duties, responsibilities, required behaviors
•   Contributions from the person in exchange for inducements from the organization (pay, fringe benefits)—Psychological Contract
•   Must roughly balance for the person to accept the role
•   Role behavior
•   Pivotal role behaviors: must accept them to join and remain a member of an organization
•   Relevant role behaviors: considered desirable and good by the organization, but not essential to membership
•   Peripheral role behaviors: neither necessary nor desirable but tolerated

Boundary Transitions
•   Socialization process is continuous throughout a person's association with an organization
•   Most intense before and after boundary transitions
•   Boundary transitions occur when a new employee crosses the organization's boundary upon joining the organization
•   Also occur as the person's career unfolds and she crosses other boundaries within the same or different organization
•   Employee is most susceptible to organizational influences just before and just after those transitions

•   Dimensions
•   Functional: emphasizes development and use of skills and abilities in doing a particular task
•   Hierarchical: move upward in organization (promotion)
•   Inclusionary: emphasizes acceptance of values, norms, and required behavior. Become part of the “inner circle.”

Individual and Organizational Perspectives on Socialization
Socialization Versus Individualization
Stages of   Organizational Socialization
•   Three stages of socialization
•   Choice: Anticipatory socialization—before joining the organization
•   Entry/Encounter—after entering the organization
•   Change: Metamorphosis—late stage featuring a new self–image
•   Result of one stage becomes input to next stage  
•   Individual perspective: experiences at each stage
•   Management perspective: each stage helps the socialization process achieve its goals
•   When experienced?
•   First job
•   New position in same organization
•   New position in different organization
Stages of
Organizational Socialization
Choice: Anticipatory socialization
(“Getting in”)
(“Breaking in”)
Change: Metamorphosis
(“Settling in”)
Taking on the role
Ethical Issues in
Organizational Socialization
•   Several ethical issues center on informed consent
•   Should the organization tell potential new employees that it will try to change some values and behavior?
•   Should present employees be told that each time they change positions, their values and behavior will also change?
•   Should an organization reveal the socialization and training goals of its training programs before employees enter the programs?
•   Debasement experiences
•   Most organizations use mild forms of debasement
•   Sororities, fraternities, basic military training, military academies use strong forms of debasement (historically)
•   Can create feelings of fear and intimidation
•   Debasement experiences pose a clear ethical dilemma for organizations and managers

An individual's personality is the complex of mental characteristics that makes them unique from other people. It includes all of the patterns of thought and emotions that cause us to do and say things in particular ways. At a basic level, personality is expressed through our temperament or emotional tone. However, personality also colors our values, beliefs, and expectations. There are many potential factors that are involved in shaping a personality. These factors are usually seen as coming from heredity and the environment.
 The acquisition of values, beliefs, and expectations seem to be due more to socialization and unique experiences, especially during  THE  EARLY  ORGANIZATION   EXPOSURE.
We often share personality traits with others, especially members of our own  community. This is probably due largely to being socialized in much the same way. It is normal for us to acquire personality traits as a result of enculturation. Most people adopt the traditions, rules, manners, and biases of their culture  from   the  organization.

The fundamental postulates of socialization impact, varying degree of impact, individual differences between candidates, and sub-group differences between gender and racial/ethnic origin are put forward as essential cornerstones of this theoretical approach. Socialization impact is articulated across five constituent domains:
-organization information provision ,
- preference impact ,
-expectational impact ,
-attitudinal impact , and
-behavioural impact .


-individual   values.

-which  in  turn  impacts  individual  needs

-which  in  turn  impacts  individual  attitude

-which  in  turn  impacts  individual  behavior.


The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*warehousing/  transportation

SOCIALIZATION --- Orientation isn't just a nice gesture put on by the organization. It serves as an important element of the recruitment and retention process. Some key purposes are:
1   To Reduce Startup Costs: Proper orientation can help the employee get "up to speed" much more quickly, thereby reducing the costs associated with learning the job.

2   To Reduce Anxiety: Any employee, when put into a new, strange situation, will experience anxiety that can impede his or her ability to learn to do the job. Proper orientation helps to reduce anxiety that results from entering into an unknown situation, and helps provide guidelines for behavior and conduct, so the employee doesn't have to experience the stress of guessing.

3   To Reduce Employee Turnover: Employee turnover increases as employees feel they are not valued, or are put in positions where they can't possibly do their jobs. Orientation shows that the organization values the employee, and helps provide the tools necessary for succeeding in the job.

4   To Save Time for the Supervisor: Simply put, the better the initial orientation, the less likely supervisors and co-workers will have to spend time teaching the employee.

To Develop Realistic Job Expectations, Positive Attitudes and Job Satisfaction: It is important that employees learn as soon as possible what is expected of them, and what to expect from others, in addition to learning about the values and attitudes of the organization. While people can learn from experience, they will make many mistakes that are unnecessary and potentially damaging. The main reasons orientation programs fail: The program was not planned; the employee was unaware of the job requirements; the employee does not feel welcome.


The orientation process has three stages:

1   A general orientation
2   A departmental orientation, and
3   A specific job orientation
They are conducted by different parties.
The General Orientation is usually managed by either the Training Department or the Human Resources Department, with the Departmental Orientation by the Department Head or first Assistant, while the specific Job Orientation can be carried out by an experienced and trained employee (trained on how to train). These guidelines are intended for people conducting the General Orientation:
A general rule of thumb for having the audience interested in the general orientation is to
1   Make them feel at ease (open circle).
2   Make sure that they had enough time to read the employee manual ahead of orientation time.
3   Spend a good portion of the introduction time towards self-introductions, spiced with open questions.
4   Get them to know who Management is: have a big chart in the orientation/training room which depicts how the organisation is set up, with photos of the management team next to their title.
5   Get them acquainted with the operation: have another large chart in the room depicting the flow of work and communications regarding the organization; this flow should include customers, suppliers and all parties affecting the organisation (I had just planned such a chart for the hotel where I dealt with Training and Development, wrote it out in text, had an artist depict it with cartoon characters on a big white chart, making it educational but humorous - after all this was a hotel. Maybe in a technical company humour is not allowed. I explained it to the artist and we showed how each job position affected the final product since the customer's / guest's first contact with the operation and ending with the last contact.
6   Have them know and see departments in operation: based on this drawing I conducted the orientation and explained all functions of the hotel, promising a personal tour of all the departments we discussed, including back areas, where the Department Heads received us personally and gave further insight on their departments.
7   Allay their fears and doubts: cover subjects which are usually never mentioned in orientations, such as the difficulties new employees or supervisors experience, about turnover figures, about how people assimilate better after hanging out three months, about how they can turn to you for any difficulties they experience, be it regarding their rejection by existing old-timers or other matters. Let them know they can always turn to you for confidential advice (do not forget that any new person has fears and doubts regarding being accepted, succeeding or failing).
8   Encourage friendships among new employees: try to create a team spirit among the existing group of newcomers - by the end of the day or the two days you will have created a group of employees at different levels and from different departments who will cooperate and enhance communications across the organisation.
9   Extend respect to them as human beings: have lunch with them as a group (I saw too many people who conduct orientations go to a different lunch room and this is very insulting).
10   Enable first hand contact with upper management: have different Executives come to welcome the group and assure them of management's commitment to help them succeed. Introduce each of the newcomers, dwell on their position, career background and personal interests.
11   Assure them that the organisation welcomes their observations, comments, and critiques.
12   Last but not least, share company goals with them. Discuss it with them. Ask what their own personal and career goals are and try to (right there and then) mesh their own goals with the company goals.
This strategy (action plan) has proven to be highly successful. It cuts down on turnover drastically, engenders trust, cooperation and motivation.

Although these sessions should be welcoming, orientations for new employees should also be more than a feel-good gesture. They should also be more than an instructional session that provides essential human resources, benefits, and payroll information for new employees. The most effective orientations help new employees understand what will be expected of them and prepare them for the organization's work culture.
Orient the expectations of new employees
Managing expectations has long been a mantra of salespeople, account executives, and others whose responsibilities are focused primarily outside the organization. Expectation management falls on human resources managers as well. Managing expectations can start as early as during new-employee orientations.
In new-employee orientations, the HR manager is essentially bringing new employees' expectations in line with the organization's expectations. Accurately aligning these sets of expectations in the first weeks of employment helps employees become productive more quickly and ensures that they enjoy greater job satisfaction throughout their tenures. Some studies suggest that well-executed new-employee orientations can also:
1   Lengthen the time that employees stay with a company.
2   Enhance staff cooperation and communication.
3   Improve client-customer relations because staff members have better work attitudes.
Communicate the organization's big picture
Where is your organization going? Even if your company has not made a formal strategic planning document, it has communicated some important long-term goals. Too often, however, these goals aren't shared with new employees whose efforts help determine whether the organization's goals are met. Therefore, it should come as no surprise that employees, even entire departments, sometimes operate under disparate assumptions about the company's priorities and objectives.
All new employees, from entry-level staff members to senior executives, should view themselves as members of an organization-wide team working toward a defined and united goal. Certainly new employees need to understand their specific roles, but first they need to understand the big-picture objectives of the organization, including objectives such as:
1   Is the organization striving to be an industry innovator?
2   Is the organization working to develop an international presence?
Whatever the objectives, new employees should be given a brief introduction to your organization's goals. If you can, provide a copy of your annual report or a company brochure that explains your organization's goals. With a bigger-picture perspective, employees are better equipped to understand their specific role as it relates to long-term objectives.
Describe the unspoken company culture
Company culture can't be fully captured in job descriptions or employee manuals, because culture is both explicit and unspoken. Most employees determine what behaviors are acceptable as the organization evolves. However, an effective orientation can help new employees transition more easily into the unique culture of your organization.
Even in highly conventional corporate cultures, it's preferable to share the unspoken aspects of company culture to ensure that all new employees understand their work environments. Don't make the mistake of assuming that cultural nuances are obvious or that new employees will raise questions if they're unsure about what to wear or when to arrive at work.
Some unspoken aspects of company culture to share are:
1   Dress code What's the norm for the dress code?
2   Internal communication Is vertical communication encouraged or frowned upon?
3   Phone etiquette Do employees routinely forward their phone calls to voice mail?
4   Parking Are there any unspoken rules about where employees can park?
5   Lunch Do most employees eat in or out? Are there good places to eat nearby?
6   Work hours Are work hours fixed or flexible?
7   Extracurricular activities Are there groups of employees that get together outside work?
8   Attitudes Are work teams more cooperative or more competitive?
Share the routine details
As a seasoned HR professional, you probably already use a comprehensive checklist to ensure that new employees receive and complete all required documentation, from W-4 forms to insurance forms to e-mail account requests. Unfortunately, the sheer volume of this paperwork can eclipse the routine information that new employees need on their very first day.
To help new employees get started, be sure that they know:
1   The layout of your office or campus A tour is preferable, but at the very least provide a user-friendly map.
2   The location of the restrooms Inform them of the locations of restrooms near their work areas.
3   Names and contact information of two coworkers Give them the contact information of two coworkers in their department, besides their immediate supervisor or hiring manager.
Outline the employee's specific role
The best way for new employees to become productive quickly is by immersing themselves in their new positions.
Immerse new employees in their jobs For positions with formal training, immersion is easy. New employees simply pass from orientation to training, often in the same day. For positions without formal training, role immersion can be more difficult.
Too often, supervisors and managers aren't available when new employees start, so employees are left with little more to do than read the company handbook during their first few days on the job. This can be confusing, especially for new employees who are expecting a challenging, fast-paced environment.
Introduce new employees to their jobs The best employee orientations conclude with introductions to each employee's specific job role. If several employees in a single role have been hired at one time, this introduction can occur in a group setting. Otherwise, new employees should receive one-on-one introductions from their managers or team leaders as part of their orientation.
Orient employees for success
Starting a new job always involves a learning curve, but effective orientations can help new employees make the transition by equipping them with:
1   An understanding of company goals.
2   An appreciation for the company's unique culture.
3   Routine information to get started.
4   An introduction to their role within the organization.
Employees who are well oriented to the company and to their jobs are ready to begin making a significant contribution.


The following steps will help you to minimize  resistance:

1.Explain why. Provide all the facts about the reason for changing. If there are risks, acknowledge them but explain why the risk is worth taking.

2.Objectively explain the benefits that could result from the change.

3.Seek questions/clarifications and answer them.

4.Invite participation and ask for suggestions because the people involved know the situation best.

5.Avoid surprise because this stirs unreasoning opposition more than any other factor.

6.Acknowledge the rough spots and explain how you plan to smooth the change.

7.Set standards and explain your expectations.

8.Contact the informal leaders and use their resources.

9.Acknowledge and reinforce the staff's co operation and give them feedback on the progress.

10.Keep the two way communications open for suggestions and corrections.
How do you manage change?
The honest answer is that you manage it pretty much the same way you’d manage anything else of a turbulent, messy, chaotic nature, that is, you don’t really manage it, you grapple with it. It’s more a matter of leadership ability than management skill.
The first thing to do is jump in. You can’t do anything about it from the outside.
A clear sense of mission or purpose is essential. The simpler the mission statement the better. “Kick ass in the marketplace” is a whole lot more meaningful than “Respond to market needs with a range of products and services that have been carefully designed and developed to compare so favorably in our customers’ eyes with the products and services offered by our competitors that the majority of buying decisions will be made in our favor.”
Build a team. “Lone wolves” have their uses, but managing change isn’t one of them. On the other hand, the right kind of lone wolf makes an excellent temporary team leader.
Maintain a flat organizational team structure and rely on minimal and informal reporting requirements.
Pick people with relevant skills and high energy levels. You’ll need both.
Toss out the rulebook. Change, by definition, calls for a configured response, not adherence to prefigured routines.
Shift to an action-feedback model. Plan and act in short intervals. Do your analysis on the fly. No lengthy up-front studies, please. Remember the hare and the tortoise.
Set flexible priorities. You must have the ability to drop what you’re doing and tend to something more important.
Treat everything as a temporary measure. Don’t “lock in” until the last minute, and then insist on the right to change your mind.
Ask for volunteers. You’ll be surprised at who shows up. You’ll be pleasantly surprised by what they can do.
Find a good “straw boss” or team leader and stay out of his or her way.
Give the team members whatever they ask for — except authority. They’ll generally ask only for what they really need in the way of resources. If they start asking for authority, that’s a signal they’re headed toward some kind of power-based confrontation and that spells trouble. Nip it in the bud!
Concentrate dispersed knowledge. Start and maintain an issues logbook. Let anyone go anywhere and talk to anyone about anything. Keep the communications barriers low, widely spaced, and easily hurdled. Initially, if things look chaotic, relax — they are
Remember, the task of change management is to bring order to a messy situation, not pretend that it’s already well organized and disciplined.
THIS  ORGANIZATION  embraces a set of principles we call "Practical Strategy" that has us aligned as co-developers of resilient strategy that is:
•   Unique to the organization
•   Compelling in the marketplace
•   Actionable in practice
•   Aware of fundamental uncertainties
•   Responsive to rapid change
In order to achieve these objectives, we structure our engagements around the following five basic principles:
1) Gather multilateral input, by investigating and/or talking to a representative sample of the executives and managers, front-line employees, customers, potential customers, partners, suppliers, competitors, regulators, distribution channels, analysts and pundits. It's not essential that everyone's opinion be given equal weight, but good ideas often emerge in unexpected quarters, and the benefits of buy-in can help in implementation.
2) Conduct an open, transparent process that brings hidden agendas out into the open. Involve, inform and gain the commitment of those who will need to implement the results. It's also important in order to get the best ideas out on the table and to avoid any distortions in analyzing them
3) Take a holistic view to ensure that plans make sense from multiple perspectives. What works financially may not work for marketing and vice versa. Engaging multiple functions in the development of a business, IT or marketing strategy ensures not only that plans are more robust, but also that they can be executed in a fiscally responsible, coordinated fashion.
4) Develop multiple scenarios to avoid being blindsided by sudden change. Simply knowing that a strategy is wrong before everyone else does can be a huge advantage. In thinking about divergent alternatives, an organization can also begin to develop business models, technologies and strategies to capitalize on emerging opportunities that others may not recognize as quickly.
5) Drive to decisions rather than engaging in endless academic debate. Success in business today is much like running a whitewater river. New challenges come up quickly, and must be dealt with quickly. Failure to make a decision can lead to disaster. But so can making a wrong one. Pre-thinking and rehearsing potential challenges (as well as opportunities) can ensure a more rapid, effective response when things begin to change suddenly.


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Leo Lingham


human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.


18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development


24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
business coaching, etc

Principal---BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd



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