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Human Resources/about mba assignment


sir can u please send me ans to these question.. as im not having any working exp.. i dont have any idea about these ques..
1.   “Retaining talent, inculcating sense of loyalty for maintaining efficiency in terms of profit generation, managing survival and growth, are some of the most difficult challenges before a professional manager in evergrowing competitive business environment”.  
Elaborate this statement, explain underlying concepts with examples from the organization you have worked for or familiar with. Briefly describe the situation and the organization, you are referring to.

2.    Define and describe Mission, Objectives, Goals, and Strategy in organizational context. Briefly explain the strategy formulation process in an organization you have worked for or familiar with. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.

3.   What are the determinants of organizational climate and culture? Briefly describe how do these affect various functions of the organization. Explain with examples from the organization you have worked for or familiar with. Specifically describe the situations and main features of the organization you are referring to with respect to the concepts referred in this question.

4.   What are the factors which influence the structure of an organization and how? Explain with specific example known to you or familiar with.  Briefly describe the situation and the factors which specifically influenced the choice of organization structure. Briefly describe the organization/s, you are referring to.

1.“Retaining talent, inculcating sense of loyalty for maintaining efficiency in terms of profit generation, managing survival and growth, are some of the most difficult challenges before a professional manager in evergrowing competitive business environment”.  
Elaborate this statement, explain underlying concepts with examples from the organization you have worked for or familiar with. Briefly describe the situation and the organization, you are referring to.


-pay for  performance
-bonus payments
-recognition  awards
-job  enrichments
-further  training
-eduction courses  attendance
-special  coaching.

-an  initial  entry  payment.




1.A satisfied employee knows clearly what is expected from him every day at work. Changing expectations keep people on edge and create unhealthy stress. They rob the employee of internal security and make the employee feel unsuccessful. I’m not advocating unchanging jobs just the need for a specific framework within which people clearly know what is expected from them.
•   2.The quality of the supervision an employee receives is critical to employee retention. People leave managers and supervisors more often than they leave companies or jobs. It is not enough that the supervisor is well-liked or a nice person, starting with clear expectations of the employee, the supervisor has a critical role to play in retention. Anything the supervisor does to make an employee feel unvalued will contribute to turnover. Frequent employee complaints center on these areas.

--lack of clarity about expectations,
--lack of clarity about earning potential,
--lack of feedback about performance,
--failure to hold scheduled meetings, and
--failure to provide a framework within which the employee perceives he can succeed.
•   3.The ability of the employee to speak his or her mind freely within the organization is another key factor in employee retention. Does your organization solicit ideas and provide an environment in which people are comfortable providing feedback? If so, employees offer ideas, feel free to criticize and commit to continuous improvement. If not, they bite their tongues or find themselves constantly "in trouble" - until they leave.
•   4.Talent and skill utilization is another environmental factor your key employees seek in your workplace. A motivated employee wants to contribute to work areas outside of his specific job description. How many people could contribute far more than they currently do? You just need to know their skills, talent and experience, and take the time to tap into it. As an example, in a small company, a manager pursued a new marketing plan and logo with the help of external consultants. An internal sales rep, with seven years of ad agency and logo development experience, repeatedly offered to help. His offer was ignored and he cited this as one reason why he quit his job. In fact, the recognition that the company didn't want to take advantage of his knowledge and capabilities helped precipitate his job search.
•   5. The perception of fairness and equitable treatment is important in employee retention. In one company, a new sales rep was given the most potentially successful, commission-producing accounts. Current staff viewed these decisions as taking food off their tables. You can bet a number of them are looking for their next opportunity.

6. The easiest to solve, and the ones most affecting employee retention, are tools, time and training. The employee must have the tools, time and training necessary to do their job well – or they will move to an employer who provides them.
•   7.Your best employees, those employees you want to retain, seek frequent opportunities to learn and grow in their careers, knowledge and skill. Without the opportunity to try new opportunities, sit on challenging committees, attend seminars and read and discuss books, they feel they will stagnate. A career-oriented, valued employee must experience growth opportunities within your organization.
•   8.The employee never felt senior managers knew he existed. By senior managers I refer to the president of a small company or a department or division head in a larger company. Take time to meet with new employees to learn about their talents, abilities and skills. Meet with each employee periodically. You'll have more useful information and keep your fingers on the pulse of your organization. It's a critical tool to help employees feel welcomed, acknowledged and loyal.
•   9.No matter the circumstances, never, never, ever threaten an employee's job or income. Even if you know layoffs loom if you fail to meet production or sales goals, it is a mistake to foreshadow this information with employees. It makes them nervous; no matter how you phrase the information; no matter how you explain the information, even if you're absolutely correct, your best staff members will update their resumes. I'm not advocating keeping solid information away from people, however, think before you say anything that makes people feel they need to search for another job.
10. This  is so key and critical to retention success. Your staff members must feel rewarded, recognized and appreciated. Frequently saying thank you goes a long way. Monetary rewards, bonuses and gifts make the thank you even more appreciated. Understandable raises, tied to accomplishments and achievement, help retain staff. Commissions and bonuses that are easily calculated on a daily basis, and easily understood, raise motivation and help retain staff.
Select the right people in the first place through behavior-based testing and competency screening. The right person, in the right seat, on the right bus is the starting point. Offer an attractive, competitive, benefits package with components such as life insurance, disability insurance and flexible hours. Provide opportunities for people to share their knowledge via training sessions, presentations, mentoring others and team assignments. Demonstrate respect for employees at all times

•   Offer  market  oriented /better  compensation   benefits.
•   Offer  potential  career  development  opportunities.
•   Offer  job enrichment - job  enlargement - job  rotation  opportunities  for  new  experience.
•   Provide tuition reimbursement.
•    Offer competitive vacation and holiday benefits.
•   Listen to them deeply; use their ideas; never ridicule or shame them.
•   Offer performance feedback and praise good efforts and results.
•   People want to enjoy their work. Make work fun. Engage and employ the special talents of each individual.
•   Enable employees to balance work and life. Allow flexible starting times, core business hours and flexible ending times. (Yes, his son's soccer game is important.)
•   Involve employees in decisions that affect their jobs and the overall direction of the company whenever possible.
•   Recognize excellent performance, and especially, link pay to performance.
•   Base the upside of bonus potential on the success of both the employee and the company and make it limitless within company parameters. (As an example, pay ten percent of corporate profits to employees.)
•   Recognize and celebrate success. Mark their passage as important goals are achieved.
•   Staff adequately so overtime is minimized for those who don't want it and people don't wear themselves out.
•   Nurture and celebrate  ORGANIZATIONAL   TRADITIONS.. Have a costume party every Halloween. Run a food collection drive every November. Pick a monthly charity to help. Have an annual company dinner at a fancy hotel.
•   Provide opportunities within the company for cross-training and career progression. People like to know that they have room for career movement.
•   Provide the opportunity for career and personal growth through training and education, challengine assignments and more.
•   Communicate goals, roles and responsibilities so people know what is expected and feel like part of the in-crowd.
•   According to research by the Gallup organization, encourage employees to have good, even best, friends, at work.
Now that you have the list, why not work to make your organization one of the few, the best, that truly honor and appreciate employees. If you treat your employees wonderfully, you will never lose them.
the most important are: respect, empowerment and flexibility.

the tangible things - the things that we can all do that affect all of us, such as encouragement, leadership, environment, compensation, challenges, recognition, influences and fun.

But let's go into tangibles.

As I said, this may be the first thing you might think of as a motivator but really it’s not. There are really many other more important reasons that people are motivated, but we still need to address this one. Salary is important to creative people. They want to feel as though they are getting fair money, that there is value created by the work they are doing for the company that they are working for. It’s the first layer or the foundation of anyone’s relationship with a client or employee. But, at some point, there has to be a limit on how much you can pay. So how else can you give employees compensation? You can talk about benefits.
There are opportunities for people within your organization to grow, and to benefit from that growth within your company. They're adding value so you may want to give them opportunities over time to earn or be invited to be partners or associates within the company. Titles are not necessarily motivating in themselves. They have to be meaningful, obviously. But that certainly is a way for someone to feel better compensated. Most of us aren’t party to any of the stuff that is available within larger institutions such as shares and employee options so we have to do it our way. As I said, there should be opportunities for growth - knowing when someone comes in, there is potentially a place that they can move to.
-that to know that there is a way for your employees to learn and grow within the organization can be incredibly motivating.
The environment we work in is incredibly important. We do a fair amount of work for interior designers and people in the furniture world. And the importance of the work environment, because of people our age, and people like us who are creative, has really changed immensely in the last little while. First of all is the location. The spaces are interesting. It is proven that people like relatively raw spaces. They like tall ceilings. They like good light. We prefer spaces where we have our individual space on the outside of our office, communal space on the inside. We tend to like bright colors.
Do you have the resources by which to accomplish what you want, in your office? You still have to send your colour out and wait for that to come back? What is the level of your computer equipment? Do you have other kinds of equipment that maybe pull you away from your computer? Do you have digital cameras for people to fool around what? Do you have other things that would help people to experiment? We had a co-op student come and spend some time with us this summer. The same student worked with three different studios this summer, and the feedback we got back from the student was that the experience with us was very enjoyable and a lot of it had to do with the environment. One of the things that people respond to is a clean, orderly office. You can find your work. You know where stuff goes. It's not chaos.
Challenges are the number one reason that creative people get excited and motivated. Challenges can be about things you set for yourself or your outside extreme forces set for you. Interesting work is one of the most important factors. Are there opportunities for learning? Is there an opportunity for someone who is particularly interested in something to do that kind of work in our office? I think if the work is interesting, it’s really worth taking on and you can make the evaluations about money secondarily.
Deadlines are important to think about. Challenges of getting work done on time. Obviously we didn't want to not say it, but that is a very self-evident motivator.
6.Company and personal goals.
Through discussions with the people who work with you, you can identify what is going to make them stay with you. Remember it is much easier to keep people than to continue to hire new people. Try to engage them. Find out what their interests are. You have to try to delve into them.  Find the things that get people excited and interested and try to cultivate those things. Say no to crap! You want people to be happy with the work they are doing and sometimes you just have to say no, this is not, on any level, work that is worth having are doing.
We all love to be recognized for what we do. We like to be recognized by our peer groups. It's my task within our company to make sure that we enter different award shows. It's amazing the number that are out there and they're expensive. Find the ones that are meaningful to you. Not only is it important to you as a company that your work is out there and to let people see it. It is important for the people who work for you that their work is out there representing you and that they get credit for it.
You want your work to make a difference, and you want to hear about the results. You want to know that you spent all this time and effort. Knowing that it has an impact.

-Being  recognized  for  merit  performance.
When you do things well, and you prove that you fit in and you belong and you’re passionate. What better way to recognize you than by advancing you or giving you more responsibility?


We strongly believe that when you submit work, when our work is out there, when we are showing our work to a client, that A) we're recognized as a company, but B) the individuals who have worked on it get recognized.  It's important to put the people forward who did the work.

This is a really important one. It is lead by example. One of the main factors that people cited ,  was that the standards and values of the people in charge are very important. And they want to know what you stand for as a company and individually. So when someone asks you to do certain kinds of work for instance, that maybe you don't want to do or you just don't feel is ethical, they are willing to say no, and not take on every job.
as  mentioned, are important. The  code of ethics is important to our work.
I think there is a responsibility on the part of the people who are trying to motivate people to share your knowledge, share your time. That can be both internal and external.  I think that you have to be able to listen to people and work with them no matter what level they’re at or what stage they’re at in their careers.

It is really important to be able to show that you are working with you that you are one hundred percent behind their work, that is a great motivator.
It's pretty self-explanatory. In giving feedback to somebody, and this is a learned art, it is very easy to cite something when it is a problem. But how do you help someone fix that problem. You have to be positive. You have to position things in a positive light.

This is pretty obvious. All of us have sponges for brains where all kinds of outside forces and media can influence your work and should influence your work.
This is one of the things that might be slightly intangible. This are, as we said, important to recognize.

17.Adaptability  to your role.
Find out what you can be, and make a job yours.

The term self-actualization  is   well  known. Give people that power to be their best, to do what they want to do. Make sure that their input is valued. When they come to present their work to you, or to a group, give them time to explain it, to show it. That process for a lot of people will take a little bit of time. Some people are shy about it; other people dominate. But people need to defend what it is they’re doing. I think that it’s important that people feel that they can contribute that way and that it's not just our direction. We all need our autonomy.

For us probably the most important thing. It is the major motivator to a lot of people. Giving people the freedom to do what they do. Trust that they are going to be able to do the job and people will support the work that you do. As an employer, trusting that they are going to get the job done and trusting that they know what they're doing is critical. Give them feedback. Spend the time to give them feedback and bring them along. Understand them. Show them empathy. These individuals are really what make up this creative group. So share your time. I think that feedback also means, listen to their feedback. Listen to how they're reacting to what's going on. You have to respect their opinion.
Guidelines for Retaining  TALENTED Employees

Develop a process to identify key individuals and positions needed in the
transition and in the new organization.

Focus on retaining the true "value creators" in the organization, not just top
management players.

Determine how long you need to keep various people on the basis of
business needs, and offer them stay bonuses as appropriate.

Assess employees against key competencies required for key positions. Use
these to objectively assess talents you will retain to meet important business

Remember when you dictate objectives, people show less commitment, but
when the process is collaborative, there is visibly more commitment. Involve
key talent in a "retention task force" where they can have input into
workforce planning and participate in discussions to help determine what it
will take to keep key talent in the new organization.

Determine which individuals will need to be relocated, if any, as early as
possible in the transition process.

Tell people what you know as quickly as you know it, and tell them what you
do not know.

Try to minimize the time that employees must endure a period of uncertainty
about whether they will be staying or leaving.

Consider developing a retention bonus plan for those considered absolutely
critical to the organization's success during and after the transition.

Understand up front that retention bonuses can have unintended
consequences and limited success. Those who get stay bonuses may be
seen as "the anointed ones" by those who don't receive such bonuses. Be
prepared to risk losing these people. Those who receive the bonuses will also
have a date by which they can voluntarily leave the organization and still
receive a bonus.

Approach all those you want to retain one on one and let them know they are
important to the organization's success. The simple phrase "I need your help"
has a kind of magic in it. "Re recruit" these people by letting them know what
is in it for them if they choose to stay on.

Try to retain all star performers and high performers even though their jobs
may have been eliminated in the reorganization. This is the same principle by
which professional sports teams draft "the best available athlete." However,
be mindful of the fact that if YOU cannot find a challenge that fits their talent,
you will not be able to keep them.
SOME  Retention Practices .

Be a company people want to work for- BRANDING  THE  COMPANY.

1. Adopt a "give and get back' philosophy.

2. Measure what counts and pay for it.

3. inspire commitment to a clear vision and definite objectives.

Select the right people in the first place.

4. Understand why some leave and why others stay.

5. Redesign the job itself to
make it more rewarding.

6. Define the results you expect and the talent you need.

7. Ask the questions that require proof of talent.

8. Use multiple interviewers and
reference checking.

9. Give a realistic job preview.

10. Reward employee referrals of successful new hires.

11. Hire and promote managers who have the talent to manage people.

12, Hire from  within when possible.

13. Creatively expand your talent pool.

Get them off to a great start.

14. Give new hires the "red carpet treatment."

15. Communicate how their work is  vital to the organization's success.

16. Get commitment to a Performance agreement.

17, Challenge early and often.

18. Train  for autonomy and initiative.

Coach and reward to Sustain commitment.

19. Proactively manage the Performance agreement.

20. Recognize results.

21. Train managers in career coaching and expect them to do it.  

22, Give employees the  tools to take charge of their careers.  

23. Know when to keep and when to let go.

24, Have more fun!

-base pay increase
-merit  increase
-bonus  for performance
-management  scope  performance  awards.


The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*warehousing/  transportation



is  an  integrated  development  processs.

Succession planning requires more of a commitment to a longer-term, strategic view of how to meet talent needs than short-term, and sometimes panic-driven, efforts to fill vacancies as they occur. It can be established and operated using ten key steps that have been field-tested in many organizations, industries, and economic sectors.

Step One: A first step for any systematic succession effort is to clarify the senior leaders’ expectations and preferences for a succession program.  A fundamental mistake, and a formula for disaster, is to dump the responsibility for the succession effort on the Human Resources department.
While the Human Resources function or other parts of the organization must participate, the leadership responsibility for succession planning rests with the CEO. If he or she does not favor systematic succession planning, it cannot be successful.

Step Two: A second step is to establish competency models by talent pool considering the positions that will be fed by that pool. A competency model is a narrative description of the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and other abilities that lead to exemplary performance. Competency models provide blueprints of the talent to build at present and in the future. In short, a competency model describes "what should be" for such hierarchical levels as executives, managers, supervisors, salespersons, technical professionals, or other groups. Alternatively, competency models may be created for specific departments. A recent innovation in some corporations has been to articulate the organization's ethics, values and code of conduct and then rate individuals against that as well as against competencies. Ethics, values and codes of conduct provide a basis by which to assess individuals against a dimension that goes beyond what it takes to get good results on the job
Step Three: A third step is to conduct individualized multi-rater, full-circle assessment. (This is sometimes called 360-degree assessment.) The idea is to assess individuals against the competencies required for success in an organization. The results of a multi-rater, full-circle assessment usually indicate gaps between what competencies an individual currently possesses and what he or she should possess to be successful.
Step Four: A fourth step is to establish (or reengineer) an organizational performance management system. One fact of life is that individuals are seldom eligible for promotion, advancement, or other developmental opportunities if they are not performing successfully in their current jobs. Individuals must thus be measured, as objectively as possible, against the performance expectations for their current level of responsibility.
Step Five: A fifth step is to assess individual potential for success at higher levels of responsibility. Unlike past or present-oriented performance management, potential assessment focuses on the future. Some means must exist to examine the talent available for future possibilities--and advancement. Regular potential assessment provides the means to do just that.
TO  plan  and  develop  a  succession /TALENT/ CAREER  plan, to  answer  
-most  of  the  above  questions
FOR  which  you  need  data   supplied  by

Data  Input  Table
Critical Role Selection
Organisation Hierarchy
Competency Data by role/position
Manager Ratings
Employee Aspirations
Employee Readiness
Employee History
Performance Rating
HR Rating (High Potential and Others)

Step Six: A sixth step is to establish a means of regular, ongoing individual development planning. Once it is clear what present and future gaps exist for individuals as a result of performance assessment and potential assessment, some means should be established to help them prepare for the future by narrowing those gaps. To that end, individual workers--and their immediate supervisors--devise a plan to help individuals develop themselves and thereby prepare for possible future promotions.
Step Seven: A seventh step is to implement individual development plans (IDPs). There are various ways by which to do that. One way is to establish in-house leadership and management development programs. A second way is to develop competency menus, in print or online, that provide specific developmental suggestions for individuals. Examples of developmental suggestions might include books to read, classroom courses to attend, online courses in which to participate, on-the-job assignments to seek out, and action learning projects that bring together groups of people to solve practical business problems while simultaneously permitting the means by which to build competence in new areas.
Step Eight: An eighth step is to establish a talent inventory. Increasingly, decision-makers must be able to find the organization’s talent on short notice. To that end, they must have information about the pools of talent that the organization is developing and has readily on tap so that teams can be marshaled on short notice to fight fires, seize opportunities, outdraw competitors, and fill vacancies.
As part of this step, it may also be useful to create depth and development charts to show how many people fall into different categories. Different HR strategies may be needed to manage individuals in different talent grids.

Step Nine: A ninth step is to establish accountability for the systematic succession planning effort. Individuals--and their bosses--must be held accountable, for cultivating their talents over time and closing developmental gaps. Otherwise, individual development plans will not be realized. Often, financial incentives for talent development can help. For instance, individuals can be given bonuses if they achieve their developmental objectives, and supervisors can be given bonuses if their workers achieve their developmental objectives. Alternatively, periodic meetings may be held in which individuals must report on how well they are implementing their individual development plans, and senior executives may report to the CEO or the Board on how well their employees have been progressing toward realizing their individual development plans.
Step Ten: A tenth and final step is to evaluate the results of the systematic succession planning effort. Often, the time-to-fill metric is a key measure of success. How long does it take to fill positions with qualified applicants? While not directly a financial measure, the time to fill does translate into financial terms. Productivity is lost, and so are opportunities, when vacancies exist in today’s right sized corporate settings.

Data Outputs Table
Critical Role List
Role List without nominated successors
Nominated Successors Short List (Based on weighted data which is customized)
Full Succession Plan
High Potential Report
Readiness Report
Drill down to individual Development Plans – ensure development is appropriate for the individual
Management development plans/career counseling/mentoring/
management training/ education.
The system provides you with instant answers across your entire Talent Pool. Succession Planning is now available not just for the executive team but for your entire Talent Pool.
focus on a particular step in the following planning process.
Develop a communication strategy
Identify expected vacancies
Determine critical positions
Identify current and future competencies for positions
Develop a recruitment strategy
Create assessment and selection tools
Supplement HR functions to include active recruiting and staffing
Identify gaps in current employee and candidate competency levels
Develop Individual Development Plans for employees
Develop and implement coaching and mentoring programs
Assist with leadership transition and development
Develop an evaluation plan for succession management
2.    Define and describe Mission, Objectives, Goals, and Strategy in organizational context. Briefly explain the strategy formulation process in an organization you have worked for or familiar with. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.

Members of the organization often have some image in their minds about how the organization should be working, how it should appear when things are going well.
An organization operates according to an overall purpose, or mission.
A mission statement sets out the business vision and values that enables employees, managers, customers and even suppliers to understand the underlying basis for the actions of the business.
What is a Mission Statement?
You should think of a mission statement as a cross between a slogan and an executive summary.
Just as slogans and executive summaries can be used in many ways so too can a mission statement. An effective mission statement should be able to tell your organization  story and ideals in less than 30 seconds.

Here are some basic guidelines in writing a mission statement:
1   A mission statement should say who your organization  is, what you do, what you stand for and why you do it. .
2   The best mission statements tend to be 3-4 sentences long.
3   Avoid saying how great you are, what great quality and what great service you provide.
4   Make sure you actually believe in your mission statement, if you don't, it's a lie, and your customers will soon realize it.

Strategic Goals
Organizational members often work to achieve several overall accomplishments, or goals, as they work toward their mission.
Business Objectives
Objectives give the business a clearly defined target. Plans can then be made to achieve these targets. This can motivate the employees. It also enables the business to measure the progress towards to its stated aims.
The most effective business objectives meet the following criteria:
S – Specific – objectives are aimed at what the business does, e.g. a hotel might have an objective of filling 60% of its beds a night during October, an objective specific to that business.
M - Measurable – the business can put a value to the objective, e.g. €10,000 in sales in the next half year of trading.
A - Agreed by all those concerned in trying to achieve the objective.
R - Realistic – the objective should be challenging, but it should also be able to be achieved by the resources available.
T- Time specific – they have a time limit of when the objective should be achieved, e.g. by the end of the year.
The main objectives that a business might have are:
Survival – a short term objective, probably for small business just starting out, or when a new firm enters the market or at a time of crisis.
Profit maximisation – try to make the most profit possible – most like to be the aim of the owners and shareholders.
Profit satisficing – try to make enough profit to keep the owners comfortable – probably the aim of smaller businesses whose owners do not want to work longer hours.
Sales growth – where the business tries to make as many sales as possible. This may be because the managers believe that the survival of the business depends on being large. Large businesses can also benefit from economies of scale.

Organizations usually follow several overall general approaches to reach their goals.
Systems and Processes that (Hopefully) Are Aligned With Achieving the Goals
Organizations have major subsystems, such as departments, programs, divisions, teams, etc. Each of these subsystems has a way of doing things to, along with other subsystems, achieve the overall goals of the organization. Often, these systems and processes are define by plans, policies and procedures.
How you interpret each of the above major parts of an organization depends very much on your values and your nature. People can view organizations as machines, organisms, families, groups, etc.
Strategy formulation refers to the process of choosing the most appropriate course of action for the realization of organizational goals and objectives and thereby achieving the organizational vision. The process of strategy formulation basically involves six main steps. Though these steps do not follow a rigid chronological order, however they are very rational and can be easily followed in this order.
1.   Setting Organizations’ objectives - The key component of any strategy statement is to set the long-term objectives of the organization. It is known that strategy is generally a medium for realization of organizational objectives. Objectives stress the state of being there whereas Strategy stresses upon the process of reaching there. Strategy includes both the fixation of objectives as well the medium to be used to realize those objectives. Thus, strategy is a wider term which believes in the manner of deployment of resources so as to achieve the objectives.   
While fixing the organizational objectives, it is essential that the factors which influence the selection of objectives must be analyzed before the selection of objectives. Once the objectives and the factors influencing strategic decisions have been determined, it is easy to take strategic decisions.
2.   Evaluating the Organizational Environment - The next step is to evaluate the general economic and industrial environment in which the organization operates. This includes a review of the organizations competitive position. It is essential to conduct a qualitative and quantitative review of an organizations existing product line. The purpose of such a review is to make sure that the factors important for competitive success in the market can be discovered so that the management can identify their own strengths and weaknesses as well as their competitors’ strengths and weaknesses.
After identifying its strengths and weaknesses, an organization must keep a track of competitors’ moves and actions so as to discover probable opportunities of threats to its market or supply sources.
3.   Setting Quantitative Targets - In this step, an organization must practically fix the quantitative target values for some of the organizational objectives. The idea behind this is to compare with long term customers, so as to evaluate the contribution that might be made by various product zones or operating departments.
4.   Aiming in context with the divisional plans - In this step, the contributions made by each department or division or product category within the organization is identified and accordingly strategic planning is done for each sub-unit. This requires a careful analysis of macroeconomic trends.
5.   Performance Analysis - Performance analysis includes discovering and analyzing the gap between the planned or desired performance. A critical evaluation of the organizations past performance, present condition and the desired future conditions must be done by the organization. This critical evaluation identifies the degree of gap that persists between the actual reality and the long-term aspirations of the organization. An attempt is made by the organization to estimate its probable future condition if the current trends persist.
6.   Choice of Strategy - This is the ultimate step in Strategy Formulation. The best course of action is actually chosen after considering organizational goals, organizational strengths, potential and limitations as well as the external opportunities.

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*warehousing/  transportation
in   Decision Making
1. Define the problem
This is often where people struggle. They react to what they think the problem is. Instead, seek to understand more about why you think there's a problem.
Defining the problem: (with input from yourself and others)
Ask yourself and others, the following questions:
a. What can you see that causes you to think there's a problem?
b. Where is it happening?
c. How is it happening?
d. When is it happening?
e. With whom is it happening? (HINT: Don't jump to "Who is causing the problem?" When we're stressed, blaming is often one of our first reactions. To be an effective manager, you need to address issues more than people.)
f. Why is it happening?
g. Write down a five-sentence description of the problem in terms of "The following should be happening, but isn't ..." or "The following is happening and should be: ..." As much as possible, be specific in your description, including what is happening, where, how, with whom and why. (It may be helpful at this point to use a variety of research methods.
Defining complex problems:
a. If the problem still seems overwhelming, break it down by repeating steps a-f until you have descriptions of several related problems.
Verifying your understanding of the problems:
a. It helps a great deal to verify your problem analysis for conferring with a peer or someone else.
Prioritize the problems:
a. If you discover that you are looking at several related problems, then prioritize which ones you should address first.
b. Note the difference between "important" and "urgent" problems. Often, what we consider to be important problems to consider are really just urgent problems. Important problems deserve more attention. For example, if you're continually answering "urgent" phone calls, then you've probably got a more "important" problem and that's to design a system that screens and prioritizes your phone calls.
Understand your role in the problem:
a. Your role in the problem can greatly influence how you perceive the role of others. For example, if you're very stressed out, it'll probably look like others are, too, or, you may resort too quickly to blaming and reprimanding others. Or, you are feel very guilty about your role in the problem, you may ignore the accountabilities of others.
2. Look at potential causes for the problem
a. It's amazing how much you don't know about what you don't know. Therefore, in this phase, it's critical to get input from other people who notice the problem and who are effected by it.
b. It's often useful to collect input from other individuals one at a time (at least at first). Otherwise, people tend to be inhibited about offering their impressions of the real causes of problems.
c. Write down what your opinions and what you've heard from others.
d. Regarding what you think might be performance problems associated with an employee, it's often useful to seek advice from a peer or your supervisor in order to verify your impression of the problem.
e.Write down a description of the cause of the problem and in terms of what is happening, where, when, how, with whom and why.
3.Define the Goal or Objective

In a sense, every problem is a situation that prevents us from achieving previously determined goals. If a personal goal is to lead a pleasant and meaningful life, then any situation that would prevent it is viewed as a problem. Similarly, in a business situation, if a company objective is to operate profitably, then problems are those occurrences which prevent the company from achieving its previously defined profit objective. But an objective need not be a grand, overall goal of a business or an individual. It may be quite narrow and specific. "I want to pay off the loan on my car by May," or "The plant must produce 300 golf carts in the next two weeks," are more limited objectives. Thus, defining the objective is the act of exactly describing the task or goal.
4. Identify alternatives for approaches to resolve the problem
a. At this point, it's useful to keep others involved (unless you're facing a personal and/or employee performance problem). Brainstorm for solutions to the problem. Very simply put, brainstorming is collecting as many ideas as possible, then screening them to find the best idea. It's critical when collecting the ideas to not pass any judgment on the ideas -- just write them down as you hear them.
5. Select an approach to resolve the problem
When selecting the best approach, consider:
a. Which approach is the most likely to solve the problem for the long term?
b. Which approach is the most realistic to accomplish for now? Do you have the resources? Are they affordable? Do you have enough time to implement the approach?
c. What is the extent of risk associated with each alternative?
6. Plan the implementation of the best alternative (this is your action plan)
a. Carefully consider "What will the situation look like when the problem is solved?"
b. What steps should be taken to implement the best alternative to solving the problem? What systems or processes should be changed in your organization, for example, a new policy or procedure? Don't resort to solutions where someone is "just going to try harder".
c. How will you know if the steps are being followed or not? (these are your indicators of the success of your plan)
d. What resources will you need in terms of people, money and facilities?
e. How much time will you need to implement the solution? Write a schedule that includes the start and stop times, and when you expect to see certain indicators of success.
f. Who will primarily be responsible for ensuring implementation of the plan?
g. Write down the answers to the above questions and consider this as your action plan.
h. Communicate the plan to those who will involved in implementing it and, at least, to your immediate supervisor.
(An important aspect of this step in the problem-solving process is continually observation and feedback.)
7. Monitor implementation of the plan
Monitor the indicators of success:
a. Are you seeing what you would expect from the indicators?
b. Will the plan be done according to schedule?
c. If the plan is not being followed as expected, then consider: Was the plan realistic? Are there sufficient resources to accomplish the plan on schedule? Should more priority be placed on various aspects of the plan? Should the plan be changed?
8. Verify if the problem has been resolved or not
One of the best ways to verify if a problem has been solved or not is to resume normal operations in the organization. Still, you should consider:
a. What changes should be made to avoid this type of problem in the future? Consider changes to policies and procedures, training, etc.
b. Lastly, consider "What did you learn from this problem solving?" Consider new knowledge, understanding and/or skills.
c. Consider writing a brief memo that highlights the success of the problem solving effort, and what you learned as a result. Share it with your supervisor, peers and subordinates


-apply  the  pestel  analysis with  respect  TO ITS BUSINESS

1.Political (incl. Legal)   

-Environmental regulations and protection
[what  are  the  government regualtions/ protection laws  that  must be  observed ]

-Tax policies
what tax  hinder the business and what  taxes  incentives  are available]

-International trade regulations and restrictions
[ does  the  government    encourage  exports / with  high tariffs  on  imports]

-Contract enforcement law/Consumer protection
[does  the  government  enforce  on  consumer  protection ]

-Employment laws]
[ is the  government    encouraging  skilled  immigrants  with  temp. permits]

-Government organization / attitude
[ does  the  government  have  a   very  positive  attitude  towards  this   industry]

-Competition regulation
[ are  there   regulation  for  limiting  competition]

-Political Stability
[ politically ,  does the   government    have   a  very   stable  government ]

-Safety regulations
[ has  the  government      adopted  some  of  the  modern  safety regulations]

-Economic growth
[  what  is  the economic growth rate  /  what  are  the  reasons ]

-Interest rates & monetary policies
[ are  the  interest  rates    under control /  is there   a  sound  monetary  policies]

-Government spending
[is  government  spending  is  significant   and  is it   under control ]

-Unemployment policy
[what  is  the  employment / unemployment  policies  of the government ]

[  has  the  taxation    encouraged  the  industry ]

-Exchange rates
[ is   there  well  managed   exchange  controls  and  is it  helping  the  industry]

-Inflation rates
[ is  the  inflation  well   under  control ]

-Stage of the business cycle
[ is  your    industry  is  on  the   growth  pattern]

-Consumer confidence
[ is  the  consumer  confidence   is   high/ strong and  if  not, why ]


-Income distribution
[is there   balanced   income  distribution   policy ]

-Demographics, Population growth rates, Age distribution
[ what  is   population   growth  and  why ]

-Labor / social mobility
[ what   are the  labor  policies  and  is  there  labor  mobility]

-Lifestyle changes
[ are  there  significant  lifestyle   changes     taking  place--more  modernization/ why  ]

-Work/career and leisure attitudes
[ are  the  population      career  minded  and  are  seeking  better  lifestyle]

[ what  are  the  education  policies /  is  it  successful ]

-Fashion, hypes
[are  the   people    becoming  fashion  conscious ]

-Health consciousness & welfare, feelings on safety
[ are  the  people     becoming  health  consciousness]

-Living conditions
[ is the  living  conditions   improving  fast  and  spreading  rapidly]


Government research spending
[is  the  government    spending  on research  and  development]

Industry focus on technological effort
[are  the   industries    focused  on  using  improved  technology]

New inventions and development
[ are  new  inventions     being   encouraged  for  developments]

Rate of technology transfer
[ is  the  rate  of  technology  transfer  is  speeding  up ]

(Changes in) Information Technology
[ is  the   information  technology    rapidly  moving  and  is  there  government  support]

(Changes in) Internet
[ is the   internet  usage    rapidly  increasing   and  why]

(Changes in) Mobile Technology
[is  the   Mobile   technology    rapidly developing  and  is there  government  support]
5.External Assessment---

Areas for opportunities and threats

* Markets [ what  is  the market  situation, which is forcing the change requirements
*Customers [ how can service the customer -internal / external -better .          
* Industry  [ is  the  industry  trend ]
* Competition [ is  it the  competitive situation      
*Factors of  business [ causing  the change]
* Technology [ is  it  technology  change ]

Internal Assessment

Areas  for strengths, weaknesses, and barriers to success

*Culture  [ is the  working  culture  change ]
* Organization [  is the  organization  demanding  change ]
* Systems  [ is it  the  systems change ]
* Management practices  [ change in  managemement process]


*Cost efficiency[  is it for  cost efficiency ]
* Financial  performance  [ is  it for  financial  performance improvement ]
* Quality [ is  it for  quality  performance improvement
*Service [ is  it for  service   performance improvement
*Technology[ is  it for  technology   performance improvement
* Market segments [ is  it for  sales  performance improvement
* Innovation[ is  it for    performance improvement
*new products[ is  it for new product   performance improvement
*Asset condition[ is  it for  financial  performance improvement
*productivity[ is  it for  financial  performance improvement





-change  the organization  structure  to  a  matrix  format,
to  enable  the product managers  to concentrate  on
product development/ planning/ product marketing.

-change  the distribution systems  to introduce
more channels  to  widen  the  market  coverage.

[ to  stay close to  the  customers and  provide  extended service]

[ to  bring  maximum  satisfaction  to  the customers]

[to extend  the  market  coverage  and gain  sales ]

   Your   Core markets;
[defence -major customers like  mines-medium  industries]

  Your  CORE  strategic thrusts.
[ productline  extension - extended market coverage-channel  exploitation]


The arena of products, services, customers, technologies, distribution methods, and geography in which you'll compete to get results.



[280 million  dollars--maintain a  growth  rate of  20% over  3  successive years.]

[ aim  for  35%  of   sales]

[aim  for  10%  of  sales ]


[22%  constant for  next   3  years ]

[13 % constant  for  next   3 years]

[over   the  next  3  years---3%  annually]

[over   the  next  3  years -----5%]

[constant  6%  over  the  next  3  years]




-quarterly  audit  of  the  programs/ plans/targets.

-monthly  reviews  of  the  plans/ targets.

-CUSTOMER   behaviors
-CUSTOMER   spending
-CUSTOMER    usage
-pricing  analysis
-distribution points
-market potential / size
-geographical  spread  of   the  market
-promotional  spending  analysis
-market analysis
etc etc
-sales  analysis
-territory  analysis
-customer analysis
-distributors  sales  analysis
etc etc

-procurement  analysis
-production  cost  analysis
-production  planning
-material  analysis
-R&D  cost  analysis
-inventory  holding
-inventory  cost analysis
-transport  cost  analysis
-warehousing  cost analysis
etc etc
-budgetory  control
-expenses  analysis
-profit /  analysis
-balance sheet
-wages  analysis
-product  cost  analysis
-break even analysis
etc etc









-production  rejects  analysis
-customer  rejects  analysis
-rejection   cost  analysis
-customer complaints analysis
etc etc

Human Resources

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Leo Lingham


human resource management, human resource planning, strategic planning in resource, management development, training, business coaching, management training, coaching, counseling, recruitment, selection, performance management.


18 years of managerial working exercise which covers business planning , strategic planning, marketing, sales management,
management service, organization development


24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, corporate planning, strategic planning, business development, product management, human resource management/ development,training,
business coaching, etc

Principal---BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd



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