Human Resources/ms 03

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Question
3)   Describe emerging trends in work organisations and discuss how it affects the quality of work life with examples

4) What are the competencies required for a change agent? Discuss.

Answer

3.Describe emerging trends in work organisations and discuss how it affects the quality of work life with examples.



IN TODAY’  WORLD,
on a  political  map, country  borders  are clear  as  ever. But on the
competition  map, financial,trading, and  industrial activities  across
national  boundaries have  rendered  that  political borders increasingly
irrelevent.

Not only  firms  that compete internationally  but  also  those whose
primary  markets  is  considered domestic  will be   affected  by
competition  from  around  the  world.



Why Globalization?

To some the word "Globalization" may seem a cliché. To others, it may
appear an end in itself. Competitive pressures are creating the need for
most companies to become Global.

Globalization is one means for
becoming and remaining a world-class competitor — a goal encased in
the mission statements of most corporations.

When developing a globalization strategy, it is clear that the emerging
markets present the greatest opportunity. The growth projections for
Europe, Japan and the United States pale in comparison to some of the
emerging markets.

Emerging Markets
Throughout the emerging markets an unprecedented consumer market
boom is driving up demand for western-style goods and services. The
largest segment of consumers in these markets is a decade short of its
peak spending years. In India alone, sales of consumer goods are rising
at 14% per year, while China is growing at almost 20% per year.
Couple the consumer-spending boom with the still burgeoning need for
infrastructure improvements and you’ll have a range of opportunities that
extends into the trillions of dollars. Projects are planned or underway in
many of these countries to upgrade transportation and
telecommunication systems, explore energy resources, build power
generation facilities and provide health care facilities.


In addition, the privatization efforts are presenting an incredible range of
opportunities for investors, lending institutions, service providers and
manufacturers.


Four key trend  influence  emerging  market potential

There are four key trends that are influencing the emerging market
potential:
1. Demographics:
Overall world population growth is now concentrated in the
developing world. Where industrial nations are facing an
increasingly older population, the emerging markets remain
young. The developed world comprises only 11% of the world’s
population.

2. Governments:
Many countries that once relied on centrally planned economies
are becoming market-driven. Industries that governments
previously restricted to foreign companies are now opening to
foreign investment.

3. Communications:
Access to the emerging markets is increasing due to huge
developments in communications technology such as the Internet
and electronic commerce. Cyberspace represents a profound shift
in the nature of communications as well as our perception of
distance.

4. Urbanization:
As infrastructure improvements are made, urban growth in the
emerging markets will continue to explode.
Estimates indicate that the emerging markets' share of world imports will
double by the year 2010, rising to over 38%. Companies dazzled by the
magnitude of these numbers must be equipped with the appropriate
knowledge, information, and strategy to make its market forays
successful.




MACRO  LEVEL  Industry Globalization
   is  due  to  such  factors  as :

•   Level of international trade
•   Intensity of international competition
•   Worldwide product standardization
•   Presence of key competitors in all key international markets.
•   Intra-firm trade
•   Technological intensity
•   International linkages of value-added activities among countries
•   International integration of value-added activities among countries
•   WORLDWIDE  FREETRADE  AGREEMENTS
•   WORLDWIDE  ECONOMIC  REFORMS
•   WORLWIDE  FINANCIAL  REFORMS
•   REMOVAL  TARIFF  BARRIERS  BY  COUNTRIES
•   REMOVAL  OF  SUBSIDIES  COUNTRIES
•   
•   ETC  ETC
====================================================


THE  PUSH  FACTORS OF   GLOBALIZATION

Market Drivers

•   Per capita income converging among industrial nations
•   Convergence of lifestyles and taste
•   Growth of global and regional channels
•   Establishment of world brands
•   Spread of global and regional media


Cost Drivers

•   Continuing push for economies of scale ( but offset by flexible manufacturing)
•   Accelerating technological innovation
•   Advances in transportation (e.g., use of FedEx to deliver urgent supplies from one continent to another)
•   Emergence of newly industrializing countries with productive capability and low labor costs (e.g., China, India and Indonesia)


Government Drivers

•   Reduction of tariff barriers (e.g., North American Free Trade Agreement)
•   Reduction of non-tariff barriers (e.g., Japan’s gradual opening of its markets)
•   Creation of trading blocs (e.g., European Union, and Euro Currency in 1999)
•   Strengthening of world trade institutions (e.g., formation of the World Trade Organization)


Competitive Drivers

•   Continuing increase in level of world trade
•   More countries becoming key competitive battlegrounds (e.g., rise of Japan to become a “lead” country)
•   Rise of new competitors intent upon becoming global competitors (e.g., Japanese firms in the 1970’s, Korean firms in the 1980’s, Taiwanese firms in the 1990’s, Chinese firms in the 2000s, and probably Indian and Russian firms in the 2010’s.


OTHER  FACTORS  WHICH   DRIVES  THE  GLOBALIZATION

•   In a Globalized industry, firms must simultaneously accomplish:
•   Global Scale Efficiency
•   Local Responsiveness
•   World-Wide Learning
=============================================





TEN   IMPORTANT ENVIRONMENTAL  CHANGES, WHICH HAS
AFFECTED  THE  HUMAN  RESOURCE --EMPLOYEES.

1.GLOBALIZATION   OF  BUSINESS.
- creating a  global mind-set within the HR group, creating
practices that will be consistently applied in different
locations/offices while also maintaining the various
local cultures and practices, and communicating a
consistent corporate culture across the entire
organization.
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2. BUSINESS  ALIGNMENT
-considering  the HR function not as just an
administrative service but as a strategic business
partner.
Companies are  involving  the human resources
department in developing and implementing both
business and people strategies.
----------------------------------------------------
3.MOBILE  CULTURE

- Communicate  to all locations about a common
corporate culture.
- Allow   local cultures to maintain their identity
in the context of the corporate culture.
- Establish   common systems (e.g., accounting,
marketing, MIS).
- Provide   management with education outlining
how the company does business.
- Create  an organizational mission with input
from all locations.
- Create a written strategy outlining the
corporate culture.
----------------------------------------------------
4.NEW   TECHNOLOGY  IMPACT  ON  SKILLS REQUIREMENTS

Technology-related skills
• Skills in identifying new applications of technologies
• Skills in developing new technologies, or advancing existing technologies
• Skills in identifying technological solutions to problems

Operative/Technical skills
• Skills in operating new tools or equipment, or applying new methods/processes
• Skills in applying new processes or tools to existing work
• Skills in installing and maintaining new products, and
• Skills in manufacturing new products.

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5.BUSINESS  INNOVATION  DEMAND  ON  MANAGMENT

Management skills
• Skills in identifying which innovation outcomes are appropriate for commercialisation
• Skills in knowing when and how to market a new product, tool or process (or other innovation outcome) successfully
• Skills in securing intellectual property rights over innovation outcomes
• Skills in setting up efficient manufacturing processes for new products
• Skills in negotiating appropriate training provision with education and training providers
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6.DEMAND  FOR  INNOVATION   THROUGH   TRAINING/DEVELOPMENT :
*Building an educated and highly skilled workforce.
*Becoming a leader in knowledge creation and innovation.
*Developing linkages, clusters and networks to become a more integrated and networked local economy.
*Fostering high levels of enterprise formation and business growth.
*Becoming a globally focused and internationally integrated economy.
*Creating a business environment and infrastructure base that facilitates business success.
establishing a culture of innovations  THRU
#Co-operative Research Centres
#Knowledge and Technology Diffusion
#Technology, Research Parks and Precincts
#Education
#Commercialisation
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7.IT  TECHNOLOGY  DEVELOPMENT.
-more  systems / more  software  for  the  business  means
different  methods  of  working, which  affect  the  working  human resources.
HRM have  to  face / meet/  manage  the  human  resources  to deliver  the  results.
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8.OUTSOURCING   OPPORTUNITIES
-the  demand  for  cheaper labor  forced  the  companies  to
seek  more  destinations  in the underdeveloped countries.
This  created  an  enormous  challenge  to  the  HRM
to seek/develop/manage  overseas  HR.
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9.DEVELOPING  ECONOMIES  GROWTH  RATE
-MAJOR  ECONOMIC  REFORMS

-the  rapid  development  of   underdeveloped  countries
forced  many companies  to  shift  their  production  base
overseas.This  created  an  enormous  challenge  to  the  HRM
to seek/develop/manage  overseas  HR.
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10.RISE  IN  PER CAPITA  INCOME
-the  rise in per capita  income  created  more  educated
human  resources.
FOR  HRM, IT  WAS  A  CHALLENGE  TO
MAINTAIN/ MANAGE  TALENTS.
=====================================
FOR   THE  EMPLOYEES   THE  CHALLENGES  ARE

EMPLOYMENT   OPPORTUNITIES.
-some  employees are losing jobs  due  to  global  job  shifts.
-employees  can  seek  jobs  in  other  countries.
-employees  are  moved to  other  countries  as  part
of  the  restructuring.
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CHANGE  IN  JOB  SECTORS  DEMAND  FOR EMPLOYEES
-more  jobs  are  created in  the business  service  sector.
-more  jobs  are  lost  in  the  industrial / manufacturing  sector.
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IMPACT  OF   CULTURE  DIVERSITY   ON  EMPLOYEES.
-employees, who  are  shifted to other  locations, needs  to manage
employees  of  diverse background.
-employees  have  to live  with  different  cultural  issues.
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INCREASED   USE  OF  MODERN  TECHNOLOGY
-the  negative   effectiveness   is  loss  in employees' jobs.
-the  positive  effectiveness  is  gain in  skilled  jobs.
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MORE TRAINING   TO  MEET  GOLBAL  CHANGES.
-employees  have  to  learn  new  skills to meet  the  modern  demand
on  the  job.
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MORE  KNOWLEDGE   TO  MEET  GLOBAL  DEMAND.
-employees  have  to  upgrade  their  knowledge   level
through  effective  knowledge  management  program.
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EMPLOYEES  FACING  CHANGING  NATURE OF  JOBS
-where a new interplay is called for between job  designed to improve flexibility
and those designed to provide security.
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EMPLOYEE  AND  WORKLIFE
--Change in the gender balance in working life, where equal opportunities bring new issues and requirements in terms of social protection
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EMPLOYEES  HAVE  TO  FACE  FLEXIBLE  FORMS  OF  WORK
- As labour markets have become more flexible, the forms of work have multiplied.
-Part-time workers and workers with fixed-term contracts (who are the first loops in the flexibility chain),
-turn into on-call and
-self-employed workers.
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EMPLOYEES FACE  SOCIAL  SECURITY  CHALLENGES
-Like unemployment, flexible forms of work pose a challenge to social security arrangements. Flexible forms of work lack continuity. Spans of work and unemployment alternate, as do weekly working hours. Defining the periods during which flex-workers are entitled to various benefits (e.g. to unemployment benefits), is becoming more difficult as the forms or work continue to multiply and definitions of various forms of work become blurred. Home workers resemble the self-employed, the self-employed resemble on-call workers, employees resemble entrepreneurs, etc.
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COMPENSATION  EARNINGS  WIDEN
-employees  with  higher skills   will  earn  more.
-employees  with  lesser  skills  will  earn  much  less.
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EMPLOYMENT  SECURITY
-there will be  commitment  by  the company,
if  the performance  is  upto  the mark.
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SELECTIVITY  IN  RECRUITMENT
-right people  in the right  way  to  meet competitive  success.
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COMPETITVE  WAGES
-right  package  for outstanding  talents.
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INCENTIVE  BASED PAYMENT
-profit  sharing/ productivity  based  payments.
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EMPLOYEE  INFORMATION  SHARING
-well  informed employees  for  successful   results/ competitive  advantage.

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PARTICIPATION  AND  EMPOWERMENT
-increase  employee participation to  improve employee satisfaction.
-empower  to broaden  participation/ control  their  work/workload.
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MULTISKILLING: CROSS -TRAINING AND  CROSS UTILIZATION.
-for  effective teamwork.
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PROMOTION  FROM   WITHIN
-to retain talent.
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MEASUREMENT  OF  PRACTICES
-more  use  of  metrics.
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WORKLIFE  BALANCING
-programs to  manage  work/life better.
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FOR  MANAGERS, TO  ACHIEVE  SUCCESS  UNDER THESE  CIRCUMSTANCES  IS   TO  CHANGE  LEADERSHIP
Transformational Leadership

Assumptions
People will follow a person who inspires them.
A person with vision and passion can achieve great things.
The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy.
Style
Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed.

Transformational Leadership starts with the development of a vision, a view of the future that will excite and convert potential followers. This vision may be developed by the leader, by the senior team or may emerge from a broad series of discussions. The important factor is the leader buys into it, hook, line and sinker.

The next step, which in fact never stops, is to constantly sell the vision. This takes energy and commitment, as few people will immediately buy into a radical vision, and some will join the show much more slowly than others. The Transformational Leader thus takes every opportunity and will use whatever works to convince others to climb on board the bandwagon.
In order to create followers, the Transformational Leader has to be very careful in creating trust, and their personal integrity is a critical part of the package that they are selling. In effect, they are selling themselves as well as the vision.

In parallel with the selling activity is seeking the way forward. Some Transformational Leaders know the way, and simply want others to follow them. Others do not have a ready strategy, but will happily lead the exploration of possible routes to the promised land.
The route forwards may not be obvious and may not be plotted in details, but with a clear vision, the direction will always be known. Thus finding the way forward can be an ongoing process of course correction, and the Transformational Leader will accept that there will be failures and blind canyons along the way. As long as they feel progress is being made, they will be happy.

The final stage is to remain up-front and central during the action. Transformational Leaders are always visible and will stand up to be counted rather than hide behind their troops. They show by their attitudes and actions how everyone else should behave. They also make continued efforts to motivate and rally their followers, constantly doing the rounds, listening, soothing and enthusing.
It is their unswerving commitment as much as anything else that keeps people going, particularly through the darker times when some may question whether the vision can ever be achieved. If the people do not believe that they can succeed, then their efforts will flag. The Transformational Leader seeks to infect and reinfect their followers with a high level of commitment to the vision.
One of the methods the Transformational Leader uses to sustain motivation is in the use of ceremonies, rituals and other cultural symbolism. Small changes get big hurrahs, pumping up their significance as indicators of real progress.
Overall, they balance their attention between action that creates progress and the mental state of their followers. Perhaps more than other approaches, they are people-oriented and believe that success comes first and last through deep and sustained commitment.
Discussion
Whilst the Transformational Leader seeks overtly to transform the organization, there is also a tacit promise to followers that they also will be transformed in some way, perhaps to be more like this amazing leader. In some respects, then, the followers are the product of the transformation.
Transformational Leaders are often charismatic, but are not as narcissistic as pure Charismatic Leaders, who succeed through a believe in themselves rather than a believe in others.
One of the traps of Transformational Leadership is that passion and confidence can easily be mistaken for truth and reality. Whilst it is true that great things have been achieved through enthusiastic leadership, it is also true that many passionate people have led the charge right over the cliff and into a bottomless chasm. Just because someone believes they are right, it does not mean they are right.
Paradoxically, the energy that gets people going can also cause them to give up. Transformational Leaders often have large amounts of enthusiasm which, if relentlessly applied, can wear out their followers.
Transformational Leaders also tend to see the big picture, but not the details, where the devil often lurks. If they do not have people to take care of this level of information, then they are usually doomed to fail.
Finally, Transformational Leaders, by definition, seek to transform. When the organization does not need transforming and people are happy as they are, then such a leader will be frustrated. Like wartime leaders, however, given the right situation they come into their own and can be personally responsible for saving entire companies.

MANAGING  THE  CHANGE
Successful change management requires a large commitment from executives and senior managers, whether the change is occurring in a department or in a complete organization. One recent survey respondent said, “a change effort cannot be optional for senior staff. They must lead or get out of the way. The new system will ultimately have to stand on its own feet, but every new system needs support and nurture.”
Senior leaders can do the following for successful change management.
•   Establish a clear vision for the change management process. Paint a picture of where the organization will end up and the anticipated outcomes. Make certain the picture is one of reality and not what people “wish” would occur.

•    Appoint an executive champion who “owns” the change management process and makes certain other senior managers, as well as other appropriate people in the organization, are involved.

•   Pay attention to the changes occurring. Ask how things are going. Focus on progress and barriers for change management. One of the worst possible scenarios is to have the leaders ignore the process.

•   Sponsor portions of the change or the change management process, as an involved participant, to increase active involvement and interaction with other organization members.

•   If personal or managerial actions or behaviors require change for the changes to take hold in the organization, “model” the new behaviors and actions. (Walk the talk.)

•   Establish a structure which will support the change. This may take the form of a Steering Committee, Leadership Group, or Guiding Coalition.

•   Change the measurement, reward, and recognition systems to measure and reward the accomplishment of new expectations.[/l
•   Solicit and act upon feedback from other members of the organization.

•   Recognize the human element in the change. People have different needs and different ways of reacting to change. They need time to deal with and adjust to change.
•   Senior leaders must participate in the training that other organization members attend, but, even more importantly, they must exhibit their “learning” from the sessions, readings, interactions, tapes, books or research.

•   Be honest and worthy of trust. Treat people with the same respect you expect from them.

Scope of change management
To support the change management debate series, the scope of change management and specific change management systems need to be defined. The purpose of defining these change management areas is to ensure that the debate topics are meaningful both to the panel and to readers. Tools or components of change management include:
•   Change management process
•   Readiness assessments
•   Communication and communication planning
•   Coaching and manager training for change management
•   Training and employee training development
•   Sponsor activities and sponsor roadmaps
•   Resistance management
•   Data collection, feedback analysis and corrective action
•   Celebrating and recognizing success

Change management process
The change management process is the sequence of steps or activities that a change management team or project leader would follow to apply change management to a project or change. Based on Prosci's research of the most effective and commonly applied change, most change management processes contain the following three phases:
Phase 1 - Preparation, assessment and strategy development
Phase 2 - Detailed planning and change management implementation
Phase 3 - Data gathering, corrective action and recognition
These phases result in the following approach as shown below in Figure 1.


Figure 1 - Change Management Process


It is important to note what change management is and what change management is not, as defined by the majority of research participants.
Change management is not a stand-alone process for designing a business solution.
Change management is the processes, tools and techniques for managing the people-side of change.
Change management is not a process improvement method.
Change management is a method for reducing and managing resistance to change when implementing process, technology or organizational change.
Change management is not a stand-alone technique for improving organizational performance.
Change management is a necessary component for any organizational performance improvement process to succeed, including programs like: Six Sigma, Business Process Reengineering, Total Quality Management, Organizational Development, Restructuring and continuous process improvement.
Change management is about managing change to realize business results.

Readiness assessments
Assessments are tools used by a change management team or project leader to assess the organization's readiness to change. Readiness assessments can include organizational assessments, culture and history assessments, employee assessments, sponsor assessments and change assessments. Each tool provides the project team with insights into the challenges and opportunities they may face during the change process.
•   Assess the scope of the change, including: How big is this change? How many people are affected? Is it a gradual or radical change?
•   Assess the readiness of the organization impacted by the change, including: What is the value- system and background of the impacted groups? How much change is already going on? What type of resistance can be expected?
•   Assess the strengths of your change management team.
•   Assess the change sponsors and take the first steps to enable them to effectively lead the change process.

Communication and communication planning
Many managers assume that if they communicate clearly with their employees, their job is done. However, there are many reasons why employees may not hear or understand what their managers are saying the first time around. In fact, you may have heard that messages need to be repeated 6 to 7 times before they are cemented into the minds of employees. That is because each employee’s readiness to hear depends on many factors. Effective communicators carefully consider three components: the audience, what is said and when it is said.
For example, the first step in managing change is building awareness around the need for change and creating a desire among employees. Therefore, initial communications are typically designed to create awareness around the business reasons for change and the risk of not changing. Likewise, at each step in the process, communications should be designed to share the right messages at the right time.
Communication planning, therefore, begins with a careful analysis of the audiences, key messages and the timing for those messages. The change management team or project leaders must design a communication plan that addresses the needs of front-line employees, supervisors and executives. Each audience has particular needs for information based on their role in the implementation of the change.

Coaching and manager training for change management
Supervisors will play a key role in managing change. Ultimately, the direct supervisor has more influence over an employee’s motivation to change than any other person at work. Unfortunately, supervisors as a group can be the most difficult to convince of the need for change and can be a source of resistance. It is vital for the change management team and executive sponsors to gain the support of supervisors and to build change leadership. Individual change management activities should be used to help these supervisors through the change process.
Once managers and supervisors are on board, the change management team must prepare a coaching strategy. They will need to provide training for supervisors including how to use individual change management tools with their employees.

Training and training development
Training is the cornerstone for building knowledge about the change and the required skills. Project team members will develop training requirements based on the skills, knowledge and behaviors necessary to implement the change. These training requirements will be the starting point for the training group or the project team to develop training programs.

Sponsor activities and sponsor roadmaps
Business leaders and executives play a critical sponsor role in change management. The change management team must develop a plan for sponsor activities and help key business leaders carry out these plans. Sponsorship should be viewed as the most important success factor. Avoid confusing the notion of sponsorship with support. The CEO of the company may support your project, but that is not the same as sponsoring your initiative.
Sponsorship involves active and visible participation by senior business leaders throughout the process. Unfortunately many executives do not know what this sponsorship looks like. A change agent's or project leader's role includes helping senior executives do the right things to sponsor the project.

Resistance management
Resistance from employees and managers is normal. Persistent resistance, however, can threaten a project. The change management team needs to identify, understand and manage resistance throughout the organization. Resistance management is the processes and tools used by managers and executives with the support of the project team to manage employee resistance.

Data collection, feedback analysis and corrective action
Employee involvement is a necessary and integral part of managing change. Managing change is not a one way street. Feedback from employees is a key element of the change management process. Analysis and corrective action based on this feedback provides a robust cycle for implementing change.

Celebrating and recognizing success
Early successes and long-term wins must be recognized and celebrated. Individual and group recognition is also a necessary component of change management in order to cement and reinforce the change in the organization.
The final step in the change management process is the after-action review. It is at this point that you can stand back from the entire program, evaluate successes and failures, and identify process changes for the next project. This is part of the ongoing, continuous improvement of change management for your organization and ultimately leads to change competency.

Summary
These eight elements comprise the areas or components of a change management program. Along with the change management process, they create a system for managing change. Good project managers apply these components effectively to ensure project success, avoid the loss of valued employees, and minimize the negative impact of the change on productivity and a company's customers. When the debate continues in January, the term change management will refer to this system of processes and tools for managing change.
Work culture may be defined as the rules / regulations, policies / practices, traditions / rituals and values / beliefs of the organisation. These dimensions of work culture are both physical and visible and some are implicit or implied norms.

Open office layouts:
We notice an increasing number of organisations who are doing away with the cabin culture. Open office layout ensures greater transparency of operations and facilitates easier communication among various people in the same location. This promotes a feeling of oneness and eliminates physical barriers. There are only a few cubicles which serve as conferences venues with lesser disturbances, else; no cabins.

Fostering teams:
Today, organisations have begun to lay greater emphasis on teamwork; you need to be effective in groups besides being efficient individually. This fosters a "we" spirit and can often contribute to synergy which in turn can make the organisation more productive. As Sir Henry Ford once said "None of us is as good as all of us"

Focus on customer satisfaction:
Cliches like "The customer pays your salary" are well accepted by most employees of the organistion. But unfortunately they find application only with respect to the external customer who buys your goods / services. Today, organisations have widened the scope of the word customer to also include the internal customers viz. the employees. Service organisations is being practised by all departments. Factors like response time, quality of service provided, attitude to help and such are also assessed by the employees with respect to user departments.

Greater emphasis on talent retention:
Companies have now started to develop psychological contracts / relations with their employees. "Service Bonds" are being gradually replaced by systems like "stock options". This conveys the all important message of companies building up a permanent relationship with their employees. With this in mind companies are developing the vision / mission statements which indicates clearly the plans for the future. Company products are given to employees at greater discounts, kith and kin of employees are provided employment, scholarship given to their children, all in a bid to build up a lasting relationship and ensure that every employee feels proud to be part of the organisation.

Equitable treatment of employees:
In the Indian context, the good old adage was "All employees are equal but some are more equal than the others". This meant that executives and senior managers were entitled to better facilities at the work place such as plush canteens, comfortable luxury transport to and from work, pot tea and coffee, a peon at their disposal and such. With the increasing advent of open office systems, we notice that many organisations are heading for common canteens, pool cars and such. Further, with increased automation, executives are encouraged to have their own personal computers. Further we have tea-coffee vending machines with executives helping themselves to it as and when they need, self-operated photo coping machines. Thus, the hierarchial formal relationships at work are giving way for more informal and self-department ways of getting things done.

Concept of learning organisation:
Training programmes are being viewed more seriously by organisations. Initially a training programme was perceived as a holiday period, break from routine work and a means to keep people occupied during preventive maintenance periods on the shop floor.

Further training efforts of most organisations have been focused at the lower level of employees of the organisation. An encouraging trend today is that organisations are now emphasizing upon training of employees at all levels. Training and development activities are aimed at increasing "Learning" experiences for employees such that it helps in both employee and organisation development. Some companies have introduced a statutory quanta of training programmes to be attended per executive per year. It is also an encouraging trend that organisations are trying to develop inhouse faculty who could conduct training programmes for other employees. This attempt , besides helping to reduce cost, would also make it more effective since internal faculty would be more aware of technical and functional aspects of their own organisation's functioning.

Flexitime work systems:
As against the conventional system where workers had to punch time cards on entry an during exit and staff / executives signed the muster, we have some other systems in the operation. Some companies have electronic attendance systems where all employees irrespective of their position in hierarchy clock-in and clock-out. Further in some organisations, flexi time of a normal working day of 8 hours is practiced; 4 hours constitute the core time when everyone is around; the remaining four hours could be determined by the employee as per his convenience.

An employee who clocks-in at 8.00 a.m. leaves at 4.00 p.m. and an employee who clocks-in at 12.00 p.m. and clocks-out at 8.00 p.m. There is flexibility yet a basic common time exists. This is really very useful because employee inconveniences such as travel time, peak traffic hours, household work and such can also be managed to an extent. In some computer companies, executives and system analysts are provided terminals at home which are connected to lan/ethernet such that the employee could even work from home and clock-in the stipulated hours of work on his terminal. This trend would usher in a pragmatic mode of work where the actual contribution at work would be seen as more important and relevant than the number of hours spent at work place.

Performance evaluation has always been perceived as a fault finding exercise. Hence, employees look at it with a very negative outlook and find it a very uncomfortable ritual done year after year. An emerging welcome trend is that the organisations are now looking afresh at performance appraisal. The focus now is on performance review with a developmental focus. It is being viewed as a tool for analysing strengths and weaknesses of employees and further link it up to professions and growth in the organisation. Organistions are identifying training needs based on performance review and training is being viewed more seriously. Thus an element of objectivity has been introduced into the system of performance appraisals.

Advent of computers as a way of life:
Another noticeable change at the work place is that most organisations have increased their efforts at automation. The PC-culture is pervading in organisations, small and big. Initially computers were used only for purposes of accounting and report generation but today computers have become a way of life. Many executives have computers on their desk and use it for their daily work, report generation, accessing information and analysing data. We also notice that the conventional telephone exchange systems, cyclostyling machines, telex machines and such, are being replaced by electronic telephone exchange, photocopying machines, fax machine, tea / coffee vending machines, paper shredders and so on. Many organisations are also moving towards paperless office by using E-mail, Local Area Networks on the computer, and such high technology driven modes of communication between departments, units and locations.

Increased quality awareness and focus:
The greatest advantage Indian organisations have derived out of increased competitiveness and Global markets is the total commitment in quality. Today the slogan is that quality has become a way of life and not an exception. Many organisations are even extending the quality concept to the quality of work life for its employees. This includes quality of services like canteen, transport, comfortable facilities at work, good quality of stationery and so on. It is interesting to note that many organisations have adopted TQM as a tool to become more competitive. Many companies are also focusing on improving the after sales service provided by them to various customers. Thus the emphasis is shifting towards quality assurance in every aspect of organisational life.

To conclude, we notice that many organisations are introducing changes in the work culture such that openness, teamwork and employee development and so on. Thus "productivity through people" is the watchword organisations are following. Greater emphasis is being laid on developing work systems and practices that make work enjoyable and stimulating than restrictive and inhibiting i.e. a fun place that people love to go to and contribute willingly towards the organisation's success and excellence.  



Communication competence is considered essential for communicators in an organization.
Inadequate and incomplete communication creates stress among employees as regards to organizational role.
Employees basically work for having a balance between organizational objectives and individual needs. High
degree of perception of quality of work life leads to satisfied, and committed workforce. The present paper aims
to discuss the interactive effect of communication and stress on perception of QWL.

It is universally accepted by both management and practitioners and researchers that the success of any
organization is highly dependant on how it attracts, recruits, motivates, and retains its workforce. Today's
organizations need to be more flexible so that they are equipped to develop their workforce and enjoy their
commitment. Therefore, organizations are required to adopt a strategy to improve the employees ''quality of
work life'(QWL) to satisfy both the organizational objectives and employee needs. The role and importance of a
good quality of work life of employees in an organization are viewed with respect to effective communication
which reduces stress while one is on the job or off the job.


Quality of Working Life is a term that had been used to describe the broader job-related experience an
individual has. But it can not afford to ignore off- the –job experiences .Non working hours can not be
categorically detached from the working hours as an employee unconsciously carries the work experience to
home. Hence it is the overall perception of QWL which makes an individual committed to the work place to
give most possible performance.

Quality of work life (QWL) is viewed as an instrument of managing people. The QWL approach
considers people as an „asset' to the organization rather than as „costs'. It believes that people perform better
when they are allowed to participate in managing their work and make decisions.

Quality of Life is the extent of relationships between individuals and organizational factors that exist in
the working environment. Quality of work life is the extent to which workers can satisfy important personal
needs through their experiences in the organization. It is focusing strongly on providing a work environment
conducive to satisfy individual needs. It is assumed that if employees have more positive attitudes about the
organization and their productivity increases, everything else being equal, the organization should be more
effective. Successful organizations support and provide facilities to their people to help them to balance the
scales as to what they perceive and what they receive.
The term quality of work life refers to the favorableness or un-favourableness of a total job
environment for people . The basic purpose is to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for people as well as for the economic health of the organization. The elements in
QWL program include-open communication, equitable reward systems a concern for employee job security and
satisfying careers and participation in decision making.
QWL programs usually emphasize development of employee skills, the reduction of occupational
stress and development of labor management relations.


IT indicate that higher QWL leads to greater job satisfaction.
In an organization we have people with diverse background, varied cultural values, different skills and
qualifications and contrasting experiences .In spite of all diversities, one thing which binds them together as a
great asset is nothing but communication. The stress caused due to inaccuracy and inadequacy of communication may lead to sense of alienation.
This also puts a question on their loyalty for the company. Here comes the role of employee communication.
Effective communication is thus, critical to the organization as it directly affects the organizational performance.
The work related factors predominantly requiring the communication competence are the working environment,
supervision, and participation in decision making
Effective communication enhances the capacity to convey information .It transmits information not
only about tangible fact but also about emotions .When an employee transmit some information ,he/she may
intentionally or unconsciously be communicating his attitude or frame of his or her mind.
Communication competence is considered essential not only for managers rather addressee too. It is the specific
skill and abilities that basically create an effective communication environment vis -a vis open working
environment.
Let us now understand the different kind of organizational stress-
Stress arises from a lack of fit between a person and its environment, if the person finds it difficult to
cope with the constraints or demands encountered .Stress can result from an opportunity, threat
or challenge when the outcomes of the episode is uncertain but important .
The major stress experienced in the organization may be related to organizational role and ineffective
communication which would otherwise help the employees know the organization better.
Organizational role  is defined by the expectations which the significant people in the
organization have from the role occupant. Role integrates the role occupant with the organization. Role occupant
performs certain functions in response to his/her role expectations. Many a times the employees do not know
exactly as to what is really expected from them in order to balance the individual objectives and organizational
objectives. In this kind of ambiguity ,while performing in a role , occupant invariably faces a number of
problems. Quality of defined organizational role, therefore, is a potential source of stress. Stress experienced in
an organizational role is known as Organizational Role Stress (ORS).
What really employees need to be given information and knowledge about in order to comprehensively define
and explain the work expected from him, are-
•Information about the organization with respect to its business, products or services ,key persons to solve
the problems along with organizational values and philosophies.
•Information about his/her job profile as to what is he /she expected to perform. Job specification and what
are the skills and resources required for the same.
•Information about the team consists of supervisors, group leader and peers with whom one has to interact
very often.
The knowledge about all the components, stated above inculcate in employees a sense of worth and
belongingness with the organization. Effective communication produces confidence and make one realize that
he /she will be given heed to, respected, trusted and valued by the organization.
There are different forms of communication like Information, advice, order, suggestion ,persuasion
,education ,warning ,moral boosting , motivation that are practiced every day in organizational life . They have
to be essentially effective to create an amicable and free working environment contributing to better perception
of QWL.
==========================================================
FORMS   OF  COMMUNICATION
1.Information
EFFECTIVE  COMMUNICATION
Factual understanding about  organization
OUTCOME
Clarity about the nature and objectives of  organization


FORMS   OF  COMMUNICATION
2. Advice

EFFECTIVE  COMMUNICATION

Influence one‟s  opinion and attitude

OUTCOME

Change in  behaviour for better results

FORMS   OF  COMMUNICATION

3. Order

EFFECTIVE  COMMUNICATION


Complete instruction and
direction in nonauthoritative manner as per level of receiver

OUTCOME

Task completion with minimum possible error.

===========================================
FORMS   OF  COMMUNICATION

4. Suggestion

EFFECTIVE  COMMUNICATION

Constructive suggestions

OUTCOME

Better functioning
=====================================
FORMS   OF  COMMUNICATION
5. Persuasion

EFFECTIVE  COMMUNICATION

Influence feeling, attitude, or belief

OUTCOME

Win over and convince others to avoid conflicting
situation
=======================================
FORMS   OF  COMMUNICATION
6. Education

EFFECTIVE  COMMUNICATION

Leads to learning and capacity building

OUTCOME

Skill up- gradation to meet the challenges

FORMS   OF  COMMUNICATION
7. Warning
EFFECTIVE  COMMUNICATION

Makes an employee careful

OUTCOME
Avoid unpleasant  situation of lay off

FORMS   OF  COMMUNICATION
8. Moral Boosting

EFFECTIVE  COMMUNICATION

Inculcates discipline ,high spirit and confidence

OUTCOME
Better  Performance especially in odd situations
======================================
FORMS   OF  COMMUNICATION
9. Motivation
EFFECTIVE  COMMUNICATION

Develop an inner urge to make effort

OUTCOME

Improved  Performance

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
THE  IMPACT
Effective mode of communication
will definitely lead to reduce the
tension and stress related to
ambiguity of the situation and
working environment where one has
to perform to exist in the
organization. Any communication
practice based on the basics of
effective communication will
gradually minimize the different
socio-psychological blocks on part of
communicators. Experiences related
to organizational role will be less
stressed .A balance between
organizational objectives and
employees needs, will lead to high
degree of perception of QWL.


It is being observed that even though a company has a brand equity in the market, however, it fails to
be the same in eyes of its own employees. The employees are not able to carry the image because they do not
perceive the quality of work life as positive. The employee communication, thus, should aim towards having a
common consensus about the organization in the minds of its employees. It should be promoting loyalty among
employees, provide better quality of work life that satisfies their needs, and encourage employees to represent
the company in a manner consistent with the image defined in the market. Moreover, the company should work
towards promoting transparency and openness in employee communication.
Employee communication is directly linked with the success of an organization. Generally, effective
employee communication is linked to productivity and morale of the employees. The effective the
communication, lesser the organizational stress, the better is the performance. Employees, today, want to have
access to concrete information.
Researches have revealed that effective communication has a positive impact on employee satisfaction,
productivity, turnover, and morale. Research shows that employees are most highly motivated and make their
best contribution to the business when there is full and open communication at work. It is also proved that where
there is an adequate and free flow of information and ideas among employees, productivity is enhanced and
ambiguity, duplication, and non performing conflict are minimized. Moreover, employee communication should
not be seen as impersonal and a formality of dissemination of information among the employees. It should be
considered to be an empathetic transfer of understanding and deeper feelings.
Thus for all practical purposes, it can be concluded that the interactive effect of communication and
stress plays an extremely decisive role on the perception of QWL. QWL programmes stressing effective
communication will contribute to have efficient, satisfied and committed work force.






















































5.What are the competencies required for a change agent? Discuss.

Diagnose problems – Understanding both the
business drivers and the organization
well enough to identify performance issues and analyze their impact on short and
long term business results
Build relationships with clients – Forming partnerships with mutual responsibility
for the outcomes of the change effort. Because the risk is higher than with most other
HR roles the level of trust required is much higher. Management consultant Ric
Reichard uses a simple formula to describe the issues which are usually at play
TRUST = perceived competence + relationship
RISK
Often the client and the change agent over emphasize one or the other (competency or
relationship) especially when the risk increases while the challenge is to balance both
to achieve the necessary level of trust.
Ensure that the Vision is Articulated – Interpreting the hopes and motivations of
the workforce through the Vision statement.
Set a Leadership Agenda – Defining the ongoing role for leaders, such as
communications, role modeling, reinforcement of desired behaviours etc. This
requires the HR executive to understand intimately the dynamics, history and
competencies of the leadership team and to have the tenacity to insist on the agenda’s
accomplishment.
Solve Problems – Recommending solutions, a common expectation of HR
professionals is not the same as solving problems. When it comes to the change agent
role, the problems encountered are often loaded with emotional and political
dynamics. The change agent must possess the insight to recognize the problem, the
sensitivity to see its importance to those involved, the courage to take honest and
often difficult measures to resolve it and the credibility to be heard.
Implement Plans to Achieve Change Goals - Successful organizational change on
any significant scale can be attributed to the right strategy and appropriate change in
organization culture. Culture change, in turn, relies heavily on aligned and supportive
people policies, systems and processes. In short, the implementation plan is an HR
plan for both the HR function and for management.
SKILLS
_____ Exhibits persistence, high energy, and commitment to the innovation
_____ Demonstrates empathy to the participant rather than to the "agency"
_____ Is seen as credible in the eyes of the participants
_____ Has a reputation as an effective person in his/her work
_____ Is not identified with a reference group which marks him/her as biased
_____ Is perceived to be a member of an equal or higher status group than the participant
_____ Demonstrates awareness of problems, alternative solutions and resources in
similar situations
_____ Can articulate needs, resources, and solutions to others
_____ Is able to skillfully defend, explain, and rejustify his/her role in the process
_____ Is cosmopolitan
_____ Has had a variety of experiences in various roles, types of organizations,
and situations
_____ Has a broad network of contacts outside of oneís own department
_____ Attends professional meetings and conferences
_____ Has visited other institutions facing similar problems
_____ Aware of relevant studies, projects, examples
_____ Is similar in salient respects to the participants
_____ Is able to relate to people at various levels in a system; not fazed by power and
prestige or lack thereof
____ Has above average communication skills:
_____ Reading speed and comprehension
_____ Writing in a variety of styles
_____ Listening
_____ Speaking
_____ Can organize people to accomplish tasks
ATTITUDES
Certain personal characteristics are also associated with successful change agents (Conger, 1991). Rank the following characteristics from most like to least like you.
1 = Most like me
8 = Least like me
_____ Creative
_____ Daring
_____ Persuasive
_____ Optimistic
_____ Resilient
_____ Inspirational
_____ Confident
_____ Insightful

KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge of the following aspects of the educational change process may be helpful in serving as a change agent in medical education. Please rate your knowledge of each general area on the following scale:
1 = not familiar at all
2 = slightly familiar
3 = familiar
_____ Understanding of Maslowís hierarchy of needs
_____ A broad acquaintance with models of individual and organizational change
and rationales behind them
_____ A broad acquaintance with the structure and norms of educational organizations,
particularly medical education organizations
_____ An understanding of the problems and needs of ambulatory education
_____ Knowledge of case studies of successful ambulatory education innovations
_____ Access to tools for data collection, problem analysis, consensus building,
planning and evaluation






COMPETENCIES

1.   Trustworthiness—As change agents, we need to earn the respect of leaders quickly so they will seriously consider our advice and factor it into their decisions. This is the foundation of a relationship of partnering that recognizes the value each brings to the relationship. It begins with being trustworthy and demonstrating this every day, in every way―from being on time (i.e., reliable) to being insightful (i.e., adding value)..
2.   Resilience—Think of the old TIMEX slogan “takes a licking and keeps on ticking”. “Resilience is the ability to absorb high levels of disruptive change while displaying minimal dysfunctional behavior. Resilient people sidestep the dysfunctions of future shock because they are pliable and have a high capacity to rebound.” (“Human Resilience During Change”, Conner Partners White Paper). All individuals in the change benefit from developing resilience. Because change agents are in the fray, I believe they benefit most from this.
3.   Conflict management—Stress often leads to dysfunction that, at its most extreme, expresses itself in conflict. The ability to remain calm and objective and to help others work out their differences in constructive and healing ways is important. Rick Mauer has an insightful summary in his work on resistance: “level one—I don’t get it; level two—I don’t like it; level three—I don’t like you”. Change agents must develop the ability to understand when behaviors expressed as “I don’t like you” (anyone in the vicinity, but particularly change agents) are actually resistance to the change.
4.   Coaching—Few resources (leaders, agents, or targets) in the change process have all the competencies necessary to transition. Great coaching helps resources understand and develop in specific areas. Change agents need to be able to earn the trust of others and confront the difficult conversations through coaching with respect and candor.
5.   Facilitation—Change is about moving people’s thinking. Often this happens in meetings. The role of the facilitator is to objectively structure and run events such that energy is focused on the topic and all relevant participants are heard. Information and perspectives are shared. Analysis is generated and decisions are made. Individuals enter the room with their own isolated starting position and leave with a fuller understanding of the group’s perspectives. Agreement is not necessarily required, but engagement informs the participant’s decision regarding his or her own level of commitment.
6.   Advanced communication skills—Not broadcasting, but rather two-way engaging dialogue, listening and talking. The ability to surface resistance and help individuals talk through it is essential. Sometimes people don’t want to commit to the change. Getting them to the point that they will make a decision is difficult, and essential (even, perhaps especially, when the answer is “I will not commit to this change”).
7.   Emotional Intelligence—“The ability to manage oneself—to have self-awareness and self-regulation—is the very basis of managing others, in many ways.” If EQ is important to “managing others” imagine how important it is to helping others transition change.
8.   Tolerance for ambiguity and the ability to manage polarities—One of the distinguishing features of transformational change is that the change is constantly changing. The phrase “we are building the bridge as we walk on it” comes to mind. The varying high levels and dynamic nature of ambiguity and constant changes in direction wears on people. It wears on leaders, agents, and targets. Beginning with a high awareness of the nature of transformational change and resilience helps.
9.   Service mindset—Change agents act in service of the organization, specifically the sponsor. They must develop analysis, advocate for recommendation, and support decisions.
10.   Love of learning—The fields of strategy execution and change management are so broad and so deep that the path to mastery can be both fulfilling and long.
Knowledge Base
•   Nature of change—While this is only one bullet, the content behind it is huge. Understanding different magnitudes of change, and how humans respond to it, is a deep science.
•   How organizations work—Organization design—and how they really work (politics and other human dynamics)
•   Consulting Skills
•   Project Management
•   Business Analysis
Bonus List—Change Targets
•   Nature of Change—Change is first an individual journey. An understanding of the nature of change empowers people to take more control in their own lives and in their careers.
•   Resilience (as noted above)
•   Personal responsibility—Employees who take responsibility for themselves make informed choices and they accept responsibility for their actions, and non-actions. They figure out whether they will participate in the change and are self-aware enough to avoid victimization.
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